PresidentKey Domestic PoliciesKey Foreign PoliciesTerm/PartyGeorge Washingtonhttps://millercenter.org/president/washington/domestic-affairshttps://millercenter.org/president/washington/foreign-affairsUnder his presidency, Washington created a separation of legislative and executive branches. He also implemented a cabinet and the Judiciary Branch.
Set the foundation for two-term presidency.Washington persisted on neutrality during the French Revolution. Washington stopped all overseas shipments because tensions with britain were too intense. Algiers desire for American money cemented Washington’s construction of a navy.
1789-1797NoneJohn Adamshttps://millercenter.org/president/adams/domestic-affairshttps://millercenter.org/president/adams/foreign-affairsHis Domestic Affairs were in correlation to his foreign. Signed Alien and Sedition Acts to off-put Dem-Rep Party. Aimed laws at immigrants negatively. Began heavy stamp and house taxes.
1797-1801FederalistThomas Jeffersonhttps://millercenter.org/president/jefferson/domestic-affairshttps://millercenter.org/president/jefferson/foreign-affairsHead of the Democratic -Republican party. He wanted to pull the government off of individual states’ governments and let them be authoritative to themselves. He also wanted to eliminate debt and reduce the bureaucracy. He also wanted to promote agriculture.1801-1809Dem-RepJames Madisonhttps://millercenter.org/president/madison/domestic-affairshttps://millercenter.
org/president/madison/foreign-affairsDue to war, Foreign affairs were more important than domestic affairs. He expressed US neutrality in his public addresses. He moved to recharter the National Bank despite 3 opposing forces who were anti-bank for various reasons.,1809-1817Dem-RepJames Monroehttps://millercenter.
org/president/monroe/domestic-affairshttps://millercenter.org/president/monroe/foreign-affairsAttention was turned back to domestic affairs after the War of 1812. He toured the country to examine forts and reach citizens on a personal level. This started the “Era of Good Feelings”. He put together an intelligent cabinet with administrators from all parts of the country. The Panic of 1819 lead to high unemployment and high bankruptcy.
The Missouri Compromise kept North (above 36/30?) free on March 6, 1820. Improved infrastructure and roads. Encouraged downfall of parties.1817-1825Dem-RepJohn Quincy Adamshttps://millercenter.org/president/jqadams/domestic-affairshttps://millercenter.org/president/jqadams/foreign-affairsWanted to improve conditions of society. He stayed with the idea of a national economy that relied on itself.
He supports the North being factories, the south being plantations and the west being farms. He proposed the creation of a national market. He was forced to accept a higher tariff than he wanted?the Tariff of 1828 or the Tariff of Abominations.1825-1829Dem-RepAndrew Jacksonhttps://millercenter.org/president/jackson/domestic-affairshttps://millercenter.
org/president/jackson/foreign-affairsRemoved high ranking gov’t officials. He created the spoils system by putting unqualified people in positions. He passed the Indian Removal Act in 1830.Wanted to secure economic independence. Stopped internal improvement spending. 1833, Compromise to enforce revenue laws. Tried to attack national bank. Whig party formed.
Implemented ‘gag rules” to keep abolition quiet. 1829-1837DemocratMartin van Burenhttps://millercenter.org/president/vanburen/domestic-affairshttps://millercenter.org/president/vanburen/foreign-affairsForced the Cherokee Indians out in 1838 which was known was the “Trail of Tears”. Mostly concerned about decline of economy (Economic Panic of 1837).
Unemployment increased and so did hunger. Economy got worse and worse. Believed in limited powers of gov’t. There was a proposal for an independent treasury. He didn’t support annexation of Texas.1837-1841DemocratWilliam H. Harrisonhttps://millercenter.
org/president/harrison/domestic-affairshttps://millercenter.org/president/harrison/foreign-affairsBelieved in a weak presidency. Thought states had rights to their own decisions about ownership of slaves.1841WhigJohn Tylerhttps://millercenter.org/president/tyler/domestic-affairshttps://millercenter.
org/president/tyler/foreign-affairsClaimed he had full powers. Did not want the cabinet. Against the resurrection of the bank. He vetoed many tariff bills and people wanted him impeached. He could not create domestic policies because he was too focused on showing that presidents have power. He signed Texas as a state March 1, 18451841-1845WhigJames Polkhttps://millercenter.org/president/polk/domestic-affairshttps://millercenter.
org/president/polk/foreign-affairsWanted to bring back independent treasury. The Walker Tariff of 1846 lowered revenue-only tariffs.He set up new independent treasury- Independent Treasury Act of 1846. Main problems was extension of slave states.
The Wilmot Proviso=”Mr. Polk’s War”=issue of slavery.1845-1849DemocratZachary Taylorhttps://millercenter.
org/president/taylor/domestic-affairshttps://millercenter.org/president/taylor/foreign-affairsHad a policy of anti-slavery. His proposition for Mexican territories to decide about slavery would upset balance. Great Compromise of 1850 settles dispute after his death. Had a cabinet of men of all parts of the country. Acted to stop expedition in Cuba. He supported the german revolutions of 1848.
Most important was discussions with Britain over plans to build Nicaragua canal.1849-1850WhigMillard Fillmorehttps://millercenter.org/president/fillmore/domestic-affairshttps://millercenter.org/president/fillmore/foreign-affairsHe had entire new cabinet with pro-union and pro-compromise beliefs.
Signed bills to end slave trading, make california a free state and give utah and new mexico territory status.Struggled to keep North and South happy about compromise.Ordered a trade mission to Japan that opened trade with japan to the world.
He also signed the Clayton-Bulwer Treaty of 1850 which didn’t let England or American take anymore of Central America.1850-1853WhigFranklin Piercehttps://millercenter.org/president/pierce/domestic-affairshttps://millercenter.org/president/pierce/foreign-affairsHad no support from antislavery supporters and had a bad cabinet. Signed Kansas-Nebraska Act in May 1854. Unable to solve Bleeding Kansas slavery issue.Tried to (and failed to) annex Cuba. Was trying to avoid Spain buying Cuba.
Opposed British in Central America. Found dictatorship emerging in nicaragua by american and had him executed by british navy.1853-1857DemocratJames Buchananhttps://millercenter.org/president/buchanan/domestic-affairshttps://millercenter.org/president/buchanan/foreign-affairsBelieved that slavery was an individual states matter and they should decide on their own. Buchanan handled the Dred Scott case by urging Northern justices to merge with Southern. He had unintentionally made a divided political system. Supported pro-slavery constitution “Lecompton Constitution” in order to get support.
Made Kansas a free state. Indirectly formed the Confederacy.He had doomed hopes to annex Cuba.
Used America’s power against Caribbean and Central America.1857-1861DemocratAbraham Lincolnhttps://millercenter.org/president/lincoln/domestic-affairshttps://millercenter.org/president/lincoln/foreign-affairsDenied that states had their own sovereignty.
Believed (and was supported by the north) that the south seceding was unconstitutionally treasonous. Promised not to take away slavery in states that wanted slavery. Didn’t support Crittenden compromises (prohibition of abolishment).
Told public that no states could leave just because they wanted to and he would stay in places owned by federal government. He sent unarmed (and pre notified) supply ships to Fort Sumter who were then attacked by the Confederate president and that began the Civil War. (April 12, 1861). Will defend Union at any cost.
Replaced generals at unwise pace. Lincoln found General Ulysses S. Grant.In March 1863, Union passed law requiring military service even though ? were already volunteering. Issued Legal Tender Act of 1862 to administer fiat currency. He suspended the writ of habeas corpus.
Lincoln’s proclamation of 1864 accepted the abolishment of slavery.Issued Emancipation Proclamation on July 22, 1862 to free all slaves in rebelling areas. He supported the Homestead Act of 1862 and the Morrill Land Grant of 1862.
Commissioned a 500 ship blockage of the Southern border. England never helped Confederacy. European nations offered Confederacy belligerent power. British were publically strongly abolitionist so couldn’t take side of Confederacy.1861-1865RepublicanAndrew Johnsonhttps://millercenter.org/president/johnson/domestic-affairshttps://millercenter.org/president/johnson/foreign-affairsFaced with uncertainty of destiny of defeated confederate states.
Felt black suffrage shouldn’t be a condition of returning into the union. Ordered defeated states to make new constitutions. He gave out lots of pardons. His new Reconstruction plan led to black codes.He tried to block black suffrage. Johnson vetoed the Freedmen’s Bureau in February 1866 and the Civil Rights Act of 1866 but both vetoes were overridden by congress.Congress began limiting Johnson’s powers on March 2, 1867.
Tenure of Office Act was passed which means the president couldn’t remove or replace anyone without approval from the senate. He began testing his boundaries and started to replace officials. The House had 11 charges against nim. They did not end up impeaching him.
Alaska was bought by America from Russia. American troops were ordered to force French out of Mexico.1865-1869National UnionUlysses S.
Granthttps://millercenter.org/president/grant/domestic-affairshttps://millercenter.org/president/grant/foreign-affairsSpain reasserted control over cuba and America backed off. Treaty to annex Santo Domingo failed. Treaty of Washington favored US and improved relations with Europe.1869-1877RepublicanRutherford Hayeshttps://millercenter.
org/president/hayes/foreign-affairsPursued bandits with Mexico. Passed bill to be able to limit but not prohibit immigration of chinese.Panama Canal by French failed.
Hayes wanted American canal or no canal.1877-1881Republican