Problems of Collocations Translation:As collocations are always determined bythe company they keep, each language has its own characteristics; these may bebased on its culture. Such language features appear in collective nouns.Examples are: Pack of dogs and wolves, swarm of bees, shoal of fish, choir ofsingers, panel of experts, and stack of books.
Besides, there are some specialanimal sounds like gibber of apes, screech of bats, buzz of bees, coo of doves,and scream of eagles. Foreign or non –native language learnersusually commit a lot of errors while translating collocations , however, thesemistakes are justifiable due to several reasons such as: Scarcity of collocationslearning sources like specialized dictionaries, and textbooks, indirectmeanings of some collocations due to objective disparities among languagesowing to different linguistic, syntactic ,semantic and cultural backgrounds. Fakhouri , (1995:1) affirms ”Collocations can be an area wherestudents err frequently in the process of translation and interpretation”.These errors can be attributed to several causes: 1-Absence or scarcity of collocation bilingual dictionaries . 2- Unpredictability of such collocationsin the target language. 3- Cultural and linguistic differences between thesource (SL) and the target language (TL).
4-Finally, some errors are related tothe process of learning vocabulary that encompasses semantic collocations andstructural collocations .Such differences lead to difficultieswhich usually encounter foreign language learners ,because a word oftencollocates with several words. It is afixed rule that single words or sets of words are not replaced in collocationwith their synonyms. For example, we can say the tree/ shrub/plant/dried ordried up , but we do not say the tree/shrub/plant passed away though both wordsindicate the meaning of death or extinction . Thus, it is not always plausibleto say the oak tree has passed away , because there are restrictions on the useof a set of words that have semantic relation.
Harmer (2001:99) clarifies an error as ”Amistake students cannot correct themselves and which therefore needs anexplanation”. Precise and right selection of acollocation and then using it may cause some problems to second or even nativespeakers of a language. Evident case canbe extracted from Arabic native speakers as in: To suspend a meeting ,some may inaccurately translate it into:???????????? /?????? instead of ???????????? /?????? which is correct and accurate translation. Nord , (1991:151) defines a translationproblem as ”An objective problem , which every translator …….has to solveduring a particular task”. Hatim and Mason (1990:204) state ”Thereis always a danger that , even for experienced translators , source languageinterference will occasionally escape unnoticed and unnatural collocation willflaw the target text”. Newmark (1988:32) explains ”Thechief difficulties in translating are lexical, not grammatical –i.e.
words ,collocations , and fixed phrases or idioms” .Baker (1992:46) states ”The mainchallenge which the translator faces while translating collocations , idioms,and fixed expressions consist of achieving an equivalence above the word level”.Therefore, translators must get rid of or at least minimize translation loss toa standard or satisfactory level.
Newmark (1988:213) argues ” Translation is sometimes a continualstruggle to find appropriate collocations , a process of connecting upappropriate nouns with verbs and verbs with nouns , and, in the secondinstance, collocating appropriate adjectives to the nouns , and adverbs oradverbial groups to the verbs; in the third instance, collocating appropriateconnectives or conjunctions (the prepositions are already in the adverbialgroups” . Collocation Translation Strategy :Beekman and Callow (1974:163) indicate ”Translating collocations is a fascinating aspect in the work of translators anda measure of their overall competence in translation ”. Thus , whentranslating collocations , a high degree of attention should be paid , sincethere is usually little or even no correspondence or equivalence amongcollocation ranges across languages , exactly as there are intra –lingual differences in the collocation range ofequivalents of the same language . Asqlan (1991:4) points out ”Thehigher the rate of these strategies , the less effective the translation is……..consequently, the less natural the intended communication will be ”.
In their study on collocationstranslation , Shakir and Farghal (1991:13) found thirteen M.A Translationstudents followed the following strategies in their collocations translations :”1-Reduction (generalization , deletion , and message abandonment ), 2-Synonymy , 3-Compensation , 4-Paraphrase ,and 5-Transfer /calquing ” 1-Loan Words (Borrowing): Is the borrowing of words directly fromsource language through transliteration or transcription . Some translatorsborrow words when equivalents in target language are not available. Vinay &Darbelnet ,(1995:31) indicates ” introduce the flavor of the SL cultureinto a translation ”. Examples include: Caffeine: ?????? ,cholesterol: ???????? Vitamin: ???????, carbohydrate: ?????????? , protein: ??????.1-Literal Translation: Sometimes alsoreferred to as word –for –word translation.
Vinay & Darbelnet (1995:33)defined this method as the ” direct transfer of a source language text intoa grammatically and idiomatically appropriate target language text in which the translator’s task islimited to observing the adherence to the linguistic servitudes of the TL”