PSYC 2301 Chapter 1 AssignmentIdentify the major psychological research perspective that corresponds with the following research questions. (3 pts each)How can I teach my 5-year old to say “please” and “thank you”?The behavioral research perspective corresponds with this scenario because the core of this perspective is the environmental conditions of behaviors. How do antidepressant medications affect mood?The biological research perspective is used here because chemicals in the body might need to be fixed in a way using medication. What variables influence whether or not a teenager will give in to peer-pressure?The sociocultural research perspective would be used because it focal point of the study is social surroundings and cultural aspects. What is the best way to measure someone’s intelligence?The cognitive research perspective would be the best way to measure someone’s intelligence, which focuses on mental processes. Identify the research method being used in each of the following settings. (2 pts each)In order to better understand the success of professional athletes, a psychologist compiles a personal and professional history of a specific athlete, interviews the athlete, and also administers an intelligence test and personality test. The information is then summarized.
Descriptive: Case Study, because the individuals are being studied over a period of time. In order to better understand the dynamics of child play, a psychologist visits a day care facility and measures the amount of time children spend playing with each other.Descriptive: Naturalistic, because the ones being studied are not being disturbed while they’re being studied. In order to better understand the effects of group assignments on final exam grades, a psychology instructor uses group assignments in only one of his two PSYC 2301 classes then compares the final exam average between the two classes.Explanation: Experimental, because the variables in the study were being manipulated in some way. In order to better understand students’ attitudes toward gun control, a psychologist sends an email to all students asking for their opinions on the matter.Descriptive: Survey, because the sample is being asked for their opinion about gun control.In order to better understand the relationship between aging and intelligence, a psychologist administers an intelligence test to several adults between the ages of 50-80 to determine if there is any pattern in changes.
Descriptive: Correlational Study, because there are two different variables being studied to determine a relationship between the two. A grocery store is interested in knowing the opinions and attitudes of their customers, so they offer customers a small gift card for taking a survey, and about 5% of the customers do so. Most of the customers who complete the survey report having a low family income.
Use this example to explain the relationship between a sample and a population as well as the importance of having a representative sample. Is the grocery store’s sample representative? Why or why not? (10 pts)Population is the group of people being studied and a sample is a percent from the population that is information is being taken from. In order to have generalized results, the sample must represent the population as a whole. This means that the people who are chosen as a sample have to be the base of what the surveyors are looking for.
The sample is not representative because the people who took the survey are all families of low income, the company offered a small gift card for taking the survey, which these families needed. Families who have a higher income would not have taken notice to the offer of a small gift card. The grocery store needed to find a way to capture all of their customer’s attention in order to get a well enough sample representative.
CorrelationsA grocery store surveys several customers and notices a direct relationship between customer age and money spent in the seafood department. Is this correlation positive or negative? Explain what this means. (5 pts)This example shows a positive correlation between customer age and money spent. This means that the relationship between the two variables are related in a way that when one increases, the other will increase; when one variable decreases, the other will decrease as well. The survey also reveals an inverse relationship between financial income and tobacco purchases. Is this correlation positive or negative? Explain what this means.
(5 pts)This example shows that there is a negative correlation between financial income and tobacco purchases. This shows that the relationship between the two is that while one variable increases, the other will decrease, and vice versa. Take a look at the scatterplot below. Does it represent a positive or a negative correlation? Give an example of two variables that would fit the scatterplot.
(3 pts)A positive correlation is shown here. This could represent the relationship between height and weight, a person who is taller tends to weigh more than a person who is shorter. Take a look at the scatterplot below. Does it represent a positive or a negative correlation? Give an example of two variables that would fit the scatterplot. (3 pts)A negative correlation is shown here. Two variables that could describe this relationship are vaccinations and illnesses. The more people that are vaccinated, the less people that have a chance of being ill.
Third-variable problemExplain the limitation of correlational research with respect to third-variable problem. (5 pts)The limitation when it comes to correlational research with respect to third-variable problems is that they do not allow cause and effect conclusions of relationships between variables. The third-variable is unmeasurable and during research must be controlled to be able to make these cause-and-effect statements. Give an example of the third-variable problem.
(3 pts)An example of a third-variable problem is depression and self-esteem. As one’s self-esteem goes down it creates a greater chance of one to get depression. That does not necessarily mean that one will get depression just because they have low self-esteem. Dr. Barnes is conducting an experiment to determine the effect of classical music on test performance in his classes. His morning class listens to classical music during exams; his evening class does not listen to any music. The averages of the test scores between the two classes are then compared.
Identify each of the following: (2 pts each)Independent variableClassical music being played during exams is the independent variable. Dependent variableNo music being played is the dependent variable. Control groupThe control group is the group that does not listen to classical music. Experimental groupThe experimental group is the one that listens to classical music during exams. Psychologists conduct research to answer questions about behavior and mental processing.Give an example of a research question you might be able to test using the experimental method. (5 pts)Is there a higher level of compliance in those who feel threatened?What is your hypothesis? (5 pts)There is a higher level of anxiety in a situation if one is threatened. ExperimentDescribe the experiment you would set up to try to answer this question (8 pts)There is a person being questioned and is told that if they do not make the correct choice then another person will be hurt in some way.
What is your independent variable? (2 pts)The independent variable was the threat. What is your dependent variable? (2 pts)The dependent variable was the anxiety levels. What is your control group? (2 pts)The control group were the ones who were not threatened. What is your experimental group? (2 pts)The experimental group were the ones who were threatened during the situation. Create a post in the Discussion forum titled “I don’t understand…” and copy your three (or more) statements here. (10 pts)I don’t understand how people can stay unorganized.
I don’t understand why people interrupt others while they’re talking. I don’t understand people who put no effort into doing anything.