Qatar’s the old Tamim tribe of central Arabia

Qatar’s area
is mostly a flat low desert. Hills reach about 130 feet around the western and
northern coast. Abu al-Bawl Hill is the country’s tallest point. Sand dunes and
salt flats are the chief topographical features of the southern sectors.
Qatar’s coastline is greater than 350 miles long. This is a good paraphrase. Remove
these notes.


a tiny dessert peninsula that stretches northward from the larger Arabian
Peninsula. Since prehistoric times it has been abandoned endlessly. After the
upcoming of Islam the region became subject to the Islamic caliphate . Qatar
has one of the world’s biggest reserves of petroleum and natural gas. Due to
their oil wealth the country’s residents enjoy a high standard of living and an
organized system of social services. Go ahead: you know what to do and you are
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is technically an “Emirate” ruled by an Emir. Since they gained
independence the country’s rulers have been in the same family. The
Emir and another great amount of members of the Al Thani family and are mainly
male. However, some high levels appointments have been made outside of the
ruling family. Due to the concentration of power within the Al Thani divisions or
disputes amongst members of this large kin group will have impact on the
political relations. In 1998 Qatar held elections for a “municipal council.” This was the first election Qatar ever
held, the campaign was popping and attracted large portions of Qatar’s
citizenry. Even though numbers of women ran for office, none were elected in
the first vote. Women and men both turned out to vote for representatives from
their residential sectors. Local residential sectors are represented by the
municipal council.


Qatar schools are gender-segregated.  Men
and women can obtain employment in government agencies or private enterprise
after completing school. Women   of  Qatar 
usually  get  employment 
in  government  jobs, 
in  the  sections 
like  education,  health, 
and  social  affairs. 
Greater  positions  are 
taken  by  men. 
The  present  of 
the  foreign  workforce 
has  put  more 
women  in  the 
public  sphere, those  women 
work  primarily  in 
jobs  that  in force 
the  division  of 
labor  by  gender. 
Foreign  women  are 
hired  mainly  as 
maids,  nannies,  teachers, 
nurses,  and service  workers.



the  arrival  of 
the  mid-18th  century 
Al-Khalifa  ruled  much 
of  the  peninsula. 
Which still is in power to this day. 
Al-Thani  is  a  branch  of 
the  old  Tamim 
tribe  of central  Arabia 
thought  to have  came 
to  Qatar  from 
the  Gibrin region in southern
Najd.  First  they 
were  nomadic  Bedouins, but 
the  region’s sparse vegetation led them to the
peninsula’s coastal
areas around Zubara where  they  fished  
and  dived  for 
pearls.  The first Al-Thani emir,
Sheikh Mohammed bin Thani, started his capital 
at  Al-Bida  in 
the  mid-19th  century, laying  the 
base of the  modern Doha.  He built his position  against 
other  local  tribes 
by  signing  a 
treaty  with  the 
British  in  1867.  
In 1872  the  second 
Al-Thani emir,  Jasim, signed  a treaty 
with  the  Turks 
letting  them  build 
a  garrison  in 
Doha.  The  Turks 
were  canceled under  the 
third  Al-Thani emir,  Sheikh 
Abdullah.  After  Turkey 
entered WWI on  the  other 
side to  Britain.  After 
British confirmed Qatar’s protection 
in  exchange  for  a
promise  that  the 
ruler  would  not 
deal  with  other 
foreign  powers  without 
British  permission –  until September 1, 1971 when independence
was  proclaimed the agreement  was endured.


Discoveries  has 
shown  that  primeval Qataris exchanged  pottery 
and  dried  fish. 
The  rulers  and 
the  people  became 
Islamic during  the 7th  century. 
Qatar is  an  active 
participant  in  the 
Persian Gulf-Indian ocean commerce 
throughout  the  medieval 
period.  The  British 
invested themselves  in Qatar  because 
the territory  is a good
vantage  point  in their route to India.  The 
northern peninsula  is  controlled by the Al Khalifa clan  from 
Bahrain  during   the 19th century.   The Qataris fought against  Al Khalifas who sent massive  naval 
force  against them in
return.  The rebels  lost 
but  the  British 
got involved  and
negotiations  started. The  result 
was  the  State 
of  Qatar was  founded 
in  December 18,1878.



Qataris  chose 
an  entrepreneur  named 
Muhammad bin Thani as their 
negotiator  with  the British 
and  the Bahrain. His  clan 
the  Al Thanis  would 
soon  rule Qatar.  When 
the British  finally  announced 
its  political disengagement  with 
the Persian Gulf,  Qatar  joined 
a  federation  which 
includes  Bahrain  and 
seven  other  States. 
Qatar left and declared their independence on  September 3,1971  due  to
disagreements  with  the federation.  Hamad bin Khalifa Al Thani  took  
power  from  his 
father  Khalifa bin Hamad Al
Thani  while  on vacation 
in Switzerland.  Qatar  enjoyed 
some  amount  of 
socio  political  liberalization like  the right 
to vote  under  his  rule.


Al-Thani  family  lived 
in Qatar  for  200 years. 
The  1916  treaty between  the 
United  Kingdom  and 
Sheikh  Abdullah  was 
close  to  those 
entered  into  by 
the  British  with 
other  Persian   Gulf 
principalities.  Beneath  it, the 
ruler  agreed  not to 
get  rid  of 
any  of  his 
territory  except to  the U.K 
and  not  to get 
into  any  relationships 
with  any  foreign 
government  without British  consent. 
The British promised  to
protect  Qatar  from 
aggression  by  sea and  to 
lend  good  offices 
in case  of  a land 
attack    in return.  A treaty 
granted  more  extensive 
British  protection  in 1934.


75-year oil concession was granted 
to  the  Qatar 
Petroleum  Company  in 
1935,  secondary   to 
the  Iraq  Petroleum 
Company,  which  was 
owned  by  Anglo-Dutch, U.S. interests, and French.  Dukhan 
discovered  high-quality  oil 
in   1940,  on 
the  western  side 
of  the   Qatar 
peninsula.  However,  the start of WWll  delayed 
oil exploitation  and  oil 
exports  did  not 
begin  until  1949.February 1972,  the 
Heir   Apparent,  Sheikh 
Khalifa  bin  Hamad 
Al  Thani  disposed his 
cousin,  Ahmed bin  Ali 
Al  Thani,  and 
took  power.  Main 
members  of  the 
Al  Thani  family  
supported  his  move, 
which  didn’t 
have violence   or  signs 
of  political  unrest.  
June 27,1995 Khalifa  bin
Hamad  was  disposed 
in a  bloodless  coup 
by  his son  Deputy 
Emir,  Sheikh Hamad  bin 
Khalifa.  In  11996 
an  unsuccessful  counter-coup was  staged. 
The  Emir  and  his 
father  are  now 
closer,  though  some 
supporters  of  the 
counter-coup   are still in  prison. 
Qatar  citizens  approved 
a  new  constitution 
via  public  referendum 
on April  2003. 


Human  life 
on  the  Qatar 
Peninsula  dates  as  far
as  50,000  years 
back,  when  tiny 
groups  of  Stone 
Age  inhabitants  built 
coastal  encampments  according 
to archaeological  evidences.
Other  finds  have had 
pottery  from  the 
Al  Ubaid  culture 
of  Mesopotamia  and 
northern Arabia, rock carvings, burial 
mounds, and  a large  town 
that  dates  from 
around  500  B.C. 
at Wusail, 20 kilometers north of Doha. The Qatar Peninsula  was 
close  to the  Dilmun 
civilization  in  Bahrain 
to  feel  its 


Doha   capital 
of  Qatar,   was  a  fishing 
village  once,  pearl 
fishers  would  search 
for  their  fortunes 
and  a  famous 
centre   for  horse 
and  camel  breeding, 
Qatar  was  a 
popping   stop  with 
traders  looking around and  shipping 
goods  for  India 
to China.  After  WWl, 
in 1916  Qatar  became 
a  British  Protectorate. 
In  1971  the 
country  got  independence 
for  Britain.


Since  Qatar’s 
independence  in  1971, 
the  geopolitical  location 
and  its  search 
for  tribal  religious 
and  political  autonomy 
in  the  Gulf 
have  shown  its 
character  also  the 
domestic  and  foreign 
policy. After  his  rise 
to  power  following 
a  palace  coup, 
Sheikh  Khalifa  bin 
Hamad  Al Thani settled  upon 
strengthen  his  control 
over  oil production,  modernizing 
the country,  and  organizing 
the  government.  He balanced 
relations   with  Saudi 
Arabia  and  Bahrain, regardless of  territorial 
disputes,   in  1981 
joined  the  Gulf 
Cooperation  Council,  Throughout 
the  first  Gulf 
War  in  1990 
he  built  his 
relationship  the  with 
United  States .   He 
signed  a  security 
pact  with  the 
United  States  after 
the  war.  Accused 
for  not  taking 
full  advantage  of 
Qatar’s  enlarged 
oil  and  gas 


Qatar  is 
an  perfect  place 
to  show  all types 
of  Middle  Eastern  
cuisine  also   Iranian 
and  Turkish.  Breakfast 
is  usually  served around 
6  o’clock meridian because  the 
workday  starts  early. 
It’s   made 
of  olives,  cheese, 
yogurt,  and coffee.  Lunch 
is  the  important 
meal  of  the 
day.  People  eat 
after  1 o’clock 
meridian,  lunch  frequently 
starts  with  appetizers, 
followed  by  fish  
or  lamb  stew, 
salad  , bread , fruit,  and 
cooked  vegetables.  Late 
in  the  evening 
is  when  dinner is 


Regional  plates 
have  matchbous  which 
is  spiced  lamb 
with  rice  seafood 
eaten  with  seasoned 
rice,  and  hareis 
which  is  prepared 
by  slow-cooked  wheat 
and  tender  lamb. Qatar 
food  also  has 
desserts  including  “Khabees” 
which  is prepared  by 
using  rosewater,  cardamom, 
saffron, nuts  and dates.  Also 
dumplings  fried  in 
oil  then  sweetened using  honey 
or  sugar  syrup. 
Desserts  usually are  enjoyed 
with  a  cup 
of  Arabic  coffee.


Muslim  Qatari 
don’t  eat 
pork.  They  eat 
halal  meat,  which 
has  been  plainly 
prepared  by   the 
slaughter  due  to 
muslim  laws.



Every   traditional 
dish  has  a 
special  cooking  method, 
which  is  general 
in  all  of 
Qatari  regions.  Though there 
are  no  specific 
preparation  in the  Qatari 
cuisine. Qatari  cuisine  uses 
elements  from  different 
cooking  traditions  took 
from  their  neighbors 
and  developed  from 
their  own  traditional 
dishes,  such  as 
Iranian  and Turkish  together 
with  nomad  and 
Indian.  Its  essential 
to  use  the 
right  amount  of 
spices,  either  for 
spicing  up  the 
taste  or  coloring 
the  dish.  The variety 
of  vegetables  and 
cereals  found  in 
Qatar  is  also 
seen  in  delicious 
dishes  belonging  to 
their  cuisine.  Meat 
is  a  main 
part  of  most 
Qatari  dishes. Qataris  prepare 
most  meals  with 
hand,  because  they 
believe  that  hands 
gives  food  a 
good  energy.


Qataris  make 
special  dishes for  specials 
occasions  like  tabbouleh 
which  is  chopped 
parsley, mint  and crushed  wheat, 
or  ghuzi  which 
is specially prepared  like  a 
whole  roast  lamb 
served  with  rice 
and  pine-nuts.  Important 
festivals  are  Islamic 
new  year,  anniversary 
of  the  Emir’s 
Succession,  and  independence Day.  The 
habitual  festivals  present 
a  right  event 
for  universal,  cultural 
and  artistic displays  which 
are  used  by 
rich  and  different 
attractions  and  dishes. 
Shawarma  is  an important 
meal  in  festivals 
which  is  grilled 
shavings  of  lamb 
or  chicken, along  with 
salad  and  rolled 
inside  a  pocket 
of  pita  bread.

Men  in 
Qatar  greet  each other 
by nose  rubbing.  On the 14th day of Ramadan,  Qatari celebrate  Garangao , for  children 
it’s  a 
fun  tradition.  In 
efforts  in  fasting 
half way  through  the 
holy  month  they celebrate.  Throughout 
Garangao, following  the  sunset 
prayer, children dress  up in  traditional 
clothes,  carry  a 
decorated  bag,  and 
walk  around  their 
neighborhoods  signing  the 
Garangao  song. The  end 
of  the  fast 
at  sunset  traditionally 
would  be  marked 
by  the firing  of 
a  canon,  so 
even   those  away 
from  town  would be able 
to  hear  the 
signal  and   know 
it’s  time 
to break the  fast.  We 
still do  this  tradition 
ceremoniously,  and  its 
broadcast  live  on 
Qatar  TV  to 
indicate   the  end 
of  the  day’s 



Qatar  traditions 
determined  and regulated  Muslim religion,  because 
of  the  rules 
on  behavior  are 
strict.  Qataris  do 
not  sunbathe  or 
swim. Qataris  have  a lot 
of  other  interesting 
activities,  such  as- 
crafts.  Once you’re 
there,  even  at 
mating  flights  tourist 
can  buy  impressing 
souvenirs  and  products 
of  Arab  craftsmen. 
Jewelry  made  of 
gold  and  silver 
are  most  popular. Thinning  of  the  personages 
they  may  seem 
a  little  harsh 
or  severe,  but true experts  of 
Arabic style jewelry  appreciates


is technology the richest  country in the
world.  Even though it’s very 
hot  Qataris  still don’t wear 
revealing  clothes.  It started off as a very poor country.  Qatar has one of the best airlines  in 
the  world.  Also 
it’s very
expensive to live in Qatar.