R.Gopali, RimaGhose Chowdhury (2014). Leadership Styles and Employee Motivation: An EmpiricalInvestigation in a Leading Oil Company in India. IMPACT: International Journal of Research in Business Management(IMPACT: IJRBM) ISSN(E): 2321-886X; ISSN(P): 2347-4572 Vol. 2. The studyexplores how at the western region of a leading oil and refinery Company,leadership styles (the independent variable) influence employee motivation (thedependent variable). Data of both types, primary and secondary, have been usedfor the study.
Secondary data has been collected through published data inpublic domain. For primary data, using random sampling, 75 questionnaires weredistributed, out of which 50 were completed. The questionnaire containsdifferent elements drawn from a) The Full Range Leadership Development Model,developed by Bass and Avolio (1994) and b) Work Motivation Scale.
Theinstrument employs 29 questions on Leadership style and 10 questions onMotivation, on a 5-point and 7-point scale respectively. The survey was administeredbetween Jan and March 2014. The researcher found that the dominant leadershipstyles were transformational and transactional and employees were moderatelymotivated.
The results show that different leadership style factors will havedifferent impacts on employee motivation components. Co-relation betweenTransformational Leadership styles and employee motivation is positive and thescore is 0.602. Co-relation between transactional style and motivation is alsopositive and the score is 0.329. However, the degree of co-relation is less,which means that, transformational style of leadership motivates employees morethan transactional style. Laissez-fairre style, on the other hand, has anegative co-relation with motivation.
This means that employees are notsatisfied. All the co-relations are highly significant.Liridon Veliu, MimozaManxhari, Visar Demiri, Liridon Jahaj (2017). The Influence of LeadershipStyles on Employee’s Performance. Journalof Management ?2 (31).Thisstudy investigates the employees performance at Business Organizations inKosovo due to effect of different leadership styles. The impact of autocratic;bureaucratic; charismatic; democratic; laissez-faire; transformational andtransactional leadership styles on employee performance at BusinessOrganizations in Kosovo is determined.
The role of leaders in today’s organizationshas changed and the success of any organization relies on the leadership stylespracticed by the leaders. A good leader understands the importance of employeesin achieving the goals of the organization, and that motivating the employeesis of paramount importance in achieving these goals. Different leadershipstyles bring about different consequences, which have direct or indirect impacton the attitude and behaviors of the employees. The findings of this studyindicated that democratic, autocratic and transformational leadership stylespositively impacted the level of employee performance. The results of the correlation analysesrevealed that charismatic, bureaucratic, laissez-faire and transactional leadershipstyle has a negative impact on the level of employee performance butstatistically it is not significant. Each leadership style is a combination ofdifferent types of behavior and characteristics of leaders.
If there is theneed to make a decision quickly and take urgent action, a leader should rely onthe autocratic style. If the group is undisciplined and poorly organized, theautocratic style is more efficient. The democratic leadership style matcheswith a well-organized and stable group. In the longer term, the democraticstyle of leadership, which includes giving employees a certain freedom andinvolving them in decision-making, is more productive. The transformational leadership style matcheswith attempts to induce followers to reorder their needs by transcendingself-interests and strive for higher order needs. The result clearly indicatesthat transformational leadership is correlated with employee performance.
Theseresults also informed that employee performance is heavily relying onleadership and it can play a vital role in determining the performance ofemployees, so managers must carefully analyze, what kind of leadership theyshould adopt if they to want to increase employee performance.Iqbal, Anwar, Haider (2015).Effect of Leadership Style on Employee Performance. Arabian Journal of Business and Management Review. The purpose ofthe study was to investigate the effect of the different leadership styles(autocratic, democratic, and participative) on the employees’ performance.
Theautocratic style is characterized by an “I tell” philosophy. The democraticapproach is characterized by an “I share” philosophy. Participative leadershipstyle is that involves all members of a team in identifying essential goals anddeveloping procedures or strategies for reach those goals. One of the mainbenefits of participative leadership is that the process allows for thedevelopment of the additional leaders who can serve the organization at a laterdate. As elaborate by Myron Rush and Cole the participative style of leadershiphas a greater positive effect on employee performance in which situationemployee feel power and confidence in doing their job and in making differentdecisions. And in autocratic style leaders only have the authority to takedecisions in which employees’ feels inferior in doing jobs and decisions.
Indemocratic style employee have to some extent discretionary power to do work sotheir performance is better than in autocratic style. Theauthoritative style is appropriate when new employees are unfamiliar and don’thave sufficient know how about their jobs. The consultative style isappropriate when organization needs creative problem solving. The participativestyle is appropriate when organization have competent and talented team members.The democratic leadership style in Al-Ghazi tractor factory would further empowertheir employees by developing teams and according some measure of power andauthority to their employees. The Al-Ghazi tractor factory would immediatereduces the autocratic leadership practices.
Hence, Al-Ghazi tractor factorywould advocate for the better leadership styles that suites differentsituations so as to reduce the dominance of autocratic leadership unless insituations where it is necessary.Somaye Bahmanabad. ACase Study of the Impact of Leadership Styles on Bank Employees’ JobSatisfaction. Södertörnuniversity, The Institute of Social Sciences, Bachelor Thesis 15 hp.Leadershipaffects the organization effectiveness in a numerous amount of ways. Due tocircumstances there are a number of changes that take place in leadership.
Leadershipis the powring force that governs the functioning of the employees; especiallyin the banking sector. Questionnaire inthe form of survey was used to collect the data. The data was tested using theStructural Equation Modeling (SEM) Method using Lisrel software. The impact ofusing transformational, relation-oriented and transactional leadership stylesand their direct effect on job Satisfaction.
A total of one hundredquestionnaires were distributed among SEB and Swede bank´s employees andseventy-one fully answered questionnaires were used for statistical analysis.In other words, seventy-one percent of the questionnaires were returned. The results clearly show that leadershipstyle (Relation-oriented, Transactional, and Transformational) have asignificantly positive effect on both the employer and employee’s satisfactionwith the job. The results indicate thatthe Transformational approach ads the most contribution toward job satisfactioncompared to the Transactional and Relation-oriented styles of leadership. Thereis a significant relationship between the transactional leadership and jobsatisfaction. There is a significant relationship between the relation-orientedleadership and job satisfaction.Linjuan Rita Men (2010) Measuring the Impact of Leadership Style and EmployeeEmpowerment on Perceived Organizational Reputation.
Institute of public relations.The current study examines the impact of organizational leadership onpublic relations effectiveness from an internal perspective. Specifically, itbuilds links between leadership style, employee empowerment, and employees’perception of organizational reputation. The results showed thattransformational leadership positively influences employees’ perception oforganizational reputation, not only directly but also indirectly, throughempowering employees.
Transactional leadership represented by contingent rewardbehavior has a significant negative direct effect on employees’ perception oforganizational reputation. Transformational leaders are more likely to delegatepower to employees and involve them in decision making than transactionalleaders. Employees who feel more empowered in terms of competence and controltend to have a more favorable evaluation of organizational reputation. Significanttheoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed.WeipingJiang, Xianbo Zhao, Jiongbin Ni (2017).
The Impact of TransformationalLeadership on Employee Sustainable Performance:The Mediating Role ofOrganizational Citizenship Behavior. Transformational leadership has drawnextensive attention in management research. In this field, the influence oftransformational leadership on employee performance is an important branch.Recent research indicates that organizational citizenship behavior plays amediating role between transformational leadership and employee performance.However, some of these findings contradict each other. Given the backgroundwhere greater attention is being paid to transformational leadership in theconstruction industry, this research aims to find the degree of the influenceof transformational leadership on employee sustainable performance, as well asthe mediating role of organizational citizenship behavior. A total of 389questionnaires were collected from contractors and analyzed via structuralequation modeling.
The findings reveal that employee sustainable performance ispositively influenced by transformational leadership. In addition, more thanhalf of that influence is mediated by their organizational citizenshipbehavior. These findings remind project managers of the need to pay closeattention to transformational leadership, to cultivate organizational citizenshipbehavior, and thereby to eventually improve employee’s sustainable performance.
AliM. Alghazo , Meshal Al-Anzi (2016) The Impact of Leadership Style on Employee’sMotivation. International Journal of Economics and Business Administration.This mixed methods study aimed to examine the relationship between theadopted leadership style and employees motivation in a private petrochemicalcompany that is located in the eastern province of Saudi Arabia.
A survey wasdeveloped and distributed to 30 employees in two departments. Furthermore,interviews were conducted with a focus group of 10 employees to validate theresults of the survey. The study found that there is a strong relationshipbetween leadership style and employee motivation where the correlation waspositive with transformational style and negative with transactional style. Thepurpose of this research was to examine the perception of private petrochemicalcompany employees about the leadership styles and its effect on employeemotivation. A combination of qualitative and quantitative methods was used inthis study. Results from data collected indicate that leaders who adaptparticipative and transformational leadership are more likely to create an atmosphereof motivation among their employees.
In general, transformational leadershipmight be of more preference for the employees of this study than transactional.The implication of this study is that managers who want to be more effectivemight need to be more inspirational, supportive, resourceful, and work todevelop their subordinate’s capabilities. Further research is required to thestudy findings with the similar firms in the region.This study examines the impact of leadershipstyle on employees performance in an organization. It went ahead inascertaining the relationship between employees’ performance and productivity,which is the hallmark of the organization goals and objectives. The studyrevealed that there is significance relationship between leadership style andemployees’ performance in the attainment of organization goals and objectives.
Effectiveleadership and management are widely heralded as key priority for national andregional development, yet the process by which they are enhanced by trainingand development and how they impact upon performance remain poorly understood.There is lack of reliable data to link management and leadership developmentwith leadership capability and individual and organizational performance andthe evidence ‘suggest a more complex relationship between them’ than oftenassumed. Leadership exists on many levels; throughout all aspects of thesociety.
The common purpose that motivates leaders is the overallaccomplishment of the organization or the system. After recognizing leadershipas a system, it becomes clear that an understanding of the relationship betweenleaders and their constituents is essential. In addition, developing andmaintaining successful organizations require leaders to understand the cultureof the organization to adapt to the challenges of the environment and torespect the constituents that make up the organization.
The responsibility ofleadership extends from the executive officers and beyond “the-local levels ofthe public. The possibilities and limitations of leaders must be understood sothat the workers can intelligently strengthen and support “good” leadership.Many have described the skills and the tasks necessary to be a leader and it islikely that these skills are widely distributed throughout the society. Animportant question is how this reservoir can be tapped.
A leadership style is a leader’sway of providing direction, implementing plans and motivating people.Leadership styles include autocratic, bureaucratic, charismatic, participative,transactional, laissez-faire, task-oriented, people-oriented, servant, and transformationalstyles. These styles can be grouped into three broad categories ofauthoritarian, democratic or liberal leadership. This study investigated theleadership styles librarians in regional libraries based in Arusha, Tanzaniaapply as well as the impact of the styles on the performance of theirlibraries. From the foregoing, the authors conclude that their a 50-50preference and use of both liberal and democratic leadership styles by thelibrary leaders in the regional libraries in Arusha.
None of the leaders useauthoritarian leadership style. The liberal and democratic leadership stylesare suitable for these libraries because their staff are highly trained andhave been leaders in their own countries before joining the regionalinstitutions. Thus, they are capable to make valuable contributions to thestrategic and operational agenda of the libraries. These leadership styles haveenhanced the performance of the libraries by mainstreaming the contribution ofthe staff to the vision and mission of the libraries and their parentorganisations; enhanced the quality and effectiveness of the services deliveredby the libraries; improved cost-effectiveness and efficiency of the servicedelivery approaches; and increased the capacity of the libraries to grow bymanaging change through innovation. Authoritarian leadership is not suitablefor the libraries of the regional institutions in Arusha, Tanzania.This researchwork is a finding that examines the impact of leadership style onorganizational productivity in study of Benue links Nigeria limited Makurdi.The objective of the study is to examine the impact of transformationalleadership style on productivity, impact of transactional leadership style onproductivity and impact of laissez-faire leadership style on productivity. Theresearch problem among others includes the style of leadership that improveproductivity and ones that hampers productivity.
The population of this study involve232 staffs of the study organization with the sample size of 147. Probabilitysampling techniques was adopted and the questionnaire method was used incollecting the data. Data were analysed using simple percentage and SPSS.
Thefindings show that there is a significant relationship between transformationalleadership style and productivity, hypothesis 2 shows a stronger relationshipbetween transactional and productivity, also hypothesis 3 shows that there is astrong relationship between laissez-faire leadership and productivity. It isrecommended that transformational and transactional leadership style should bemore adhered to since it have strong effect on organizational productivity andleaders with laissez-faire leadership style should always be available forgroup members for consultation and feedback.