Reference individuals due to poorly-maintained and manipulated birth

Reference
ID:  2018-03765

Title: Forensic age estimation using secondary centers of
ossification in elbow joint – Digital radiographic study on South Indian
population.

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Introduction:

Forensic Age determination of individuals is a part and
parcel in sorting out and solving medico legal cases. The ages of 7, 12, 16 and
18 hold a significant place in our laws. Determining age from the time of
appearance and fusion of secondary ossification centers of bones is the most
widely used, reasonably-accepted method. Thus radiological examination comes
into play. Age determination by radiological examination becomes an
indispensable task for forensic practitioners where discrepancies occur in the
evidence of age of individuals due to poorly-maintained and manipulated birth
records. A strict rule for age determination for a whole country cannot be
framed because skeletal growth is influenced not only by age and sex but also
geographic diversity, climate, diet and health states which differs region-to-region
within a country. Age determination using Roentgenography of skeleton is based
on the fact that epiphyseal fusion occurs at relatively constant age. Available
data show significant variations within different geographic regions of a
country. This study has been extensively executed in different states of India
but only little work has been carried out with reference to …………………

Objectives:

1. To undertake region-based study to determine age of
appearance and fusion of epiphyseal centers in children less than19 years of
age.

2. To study sex-specific changes in ossification below 19
years of age.

 

 

 

Methodology:

This study will be carried
out at the Department of Forensic medicine, Government Medical College,
Omandurar Government Estate,Chennai-02.

Type of study:
Retrospective study.

Study design:

Study population:

Sample size:
50

Selection Criteria:

·      
Inclusion criteria:

ü New
born – 19 years of age of both sexes.

·      
Exclusion criteria:

ü Fractures.

ü Bone
anomalies.

 

Ø Data
collection procedures do not have direct involvement of patients (not a
cross-sectional study) as only previously taken radiographic images are used which
the patients had taken for diagnostic purposes.

Ø Obtaining
informed consent from patients to use their radiographs for purposes other than
diagnosis is not possible as this is a retrospective study.

Ø But
it would not lead to any sort of ethical issues as the patient’s identity is
not revealed at any point of this study and it would not cause defamation. Thus
the patient is not affected physically as well as emotionally.

Ø Radiographs
of elbow joint pertaining to the inclusion criteria are obtained from the
Department of Radiology, Government Medical College Hospital, Chennai.

Ø The
radiographs are dated from

Ø The
images are viewed in digital form.

Ø Prior
permission is obtained from the department for transferring the images
electronically to my PC.

Ø The
advantage of digital image over film is that the former can be accurately
studied as it can be magnified for closer and better view thus reducing the
chances of observation error.

Ø  The evidence of age……?

Ø The
images are observed for secondary ossification centers and epiphyseal fusion.

Ø The
images are viewed for age and sex-specific changes.

Ø The
stages of appearance and fusion of secondary ossification proposed by
McKern-Stewart method is used.

Ø The
findings, thus obtained, are compared with certain standards to see if there
are any variations or not.

 

 

IMPLICATIONS:

§  The
field of forensic medicine is designed in such a way that the knowledge
obtained is applied not only for the sufferer’s justice but also for the
administration of social justice.

§  Age
is the one which determines the scenario post crime.

§  This
is because age of the defendant plays a crucial role.

§  It
is the one which decides if the crime committed is an offense or not and if the
defendant should be punished or not.

§  Due
to discrepancies in the age of the defendant, neither he should be wrongly
punished nor should he escape from punishment.

§  Age
makes sure that the correct person of appropriate age is punished.

§  Thus
determining age with accuracy by radiological examination ensures betterment of
social justice.

REFERENCES:

1.               
A
COMPARATIVE STUDY OF AGE BETWEEN RADIOLOGICAL EXAMINATION OF ELBOW JOINT AND
BIRTH CERTIFICATES IN MALES S. Krishnaprasad 1 , K. Sudhakar Suresh 2 1
Professor, Department of Forensic Medicine, S. V. S. Medical College, Yenugonda
Village, Mahabubnagar (Dt . ), Telangana . 2 Assistant Professor , Department
of Forensic Medicine, S. V. S. Medical College, Yenugonda Village, Mahabubnagar
(Dt . ), Telangana .

2.               
AGE
DETERMINATION FROM RADIOLOGICAL STUDY OF EPIPHYSIAL APPEARANCE AND FUSION
AROUND ELBOW JOINT *Dr. S.S. Bhise, 
**Dr. S. D. Nanandkar * Corresponding author, Assistant professor,
Forensic medicine dept., Grant medical college Mumbai.**Professor, HOD,
Forensic medicine dept., Grant medical college Mumbai.

        3.        STUDY OF OSSIFICATION CENTERS FUSION OF
ELBOW JOINT IN 15-17 YEARS        

                   GARHWALI   FEMALES OF DEHRADUN REGION.                                                                    
                                                                     

           Satya
Prakash Dixit & R.K.Bansal.

        4.        RADIOLOGICAL STUDY OF EPIPHYSEAL FUSION
AT ELBOW REGION IN

                   RELATION TO PHYSIOLOGICAL
FINDINGS IN 12-17 YEARS AGE GROUP.                              

           Dharmesh
S. Patel, Dharmesh Shilajiya & Kalpesh A. Shah.

        5.         AGE DETERMINATION BY APPEARANCE AND
FUSION OF EPIPHYSIS OF ELBOW

                   JOINT BY DIGITAL X-RAYS
STUDY IN THE  SGE GROUP OF 10-18 YEARS.

                   1 Yogesh Sharma 2 Manoj Garg
3 Anupama Garg.