Reference individuals due to poorly-maintained and manipulated birth

ReferenceID:  2018-03765Title: Forensic age estimation using secondary centers ofossification in elbow joint – Digital radiographic study on South Indianpopulation.Introduction:Forensic Age determination of individuals is a part andparcel in sorting out and solving medico legal cases. The ages of 7, 12, 16 and18 hold a significant place in our laws. Determining age from the time ofappearance and fusion of secondary ossification centers of bones is the mostwidely used, reasonably-accepted method. Thus radiological examination comesinto play.

Age determination by radiological examination becomes anindispensable task for forensic practitioners where discrepancies occur in theevidence of age of individuals due to poorly-maintained and manipulated birthrecords. A strict rule for age determination for a whole country cannot beframed because skeletal growth is influenced not only by age and sex but alsogeographic diversity, climate, diet and health states which differs region-to-regionwithin a country. Age determination using Roentgenography of skeleton is basedon the fact that epiphyseal fusion occurs at relatively constant age. Availabledata show significant variations within different geographic regions of acountry. This study has been extensively executed in different states of Indiabut only little work has been carried out with reference to …………………Objectives:1. To undertake region-based study to determine age ofappearance and fusion of epiphyseal centers in children less than19 years ofage.2. To study sex-specific changes in ossification below 19years of age.

   Methodology:This study will be carriedout at the Department of Forensic medicine, Government Medical College,Omandurar Government Estate,Chennai-02. Type of study:Retrospective study.Study design:Study population:Sample size:50Selection Criteria:·      Inclusion criteria:ü Newborn – 19 years of age of both sexes.·      Exclusion criteria:ü Fractures.ü Boneanomalies. Ø Datacollection procedures do not have direct involvement of patients (not across-sectional study) as only previously taken radiographic images are used whichthe patients had taken for diagnostic purposes.Ø Obtaininginformed consent from patients to use their radiographs for purposes other thandiagnosis is not possible as this is a retrospective study.Ø Butit would not lead to any sort of ethical issues as the patient’s identity isnot revealed at any point of this study and it would not cause defamation.

Thusthe patient is not affected physically as well as emotionally.Ø Radiographsof elbow joint pertaining to the inclusion criteria are obtained from theDepartment of Radiology, Government Medical College Hospital, Chennai.Ø Theradiographs are dated from Ø Theimages are viewed in digital form.Ø Priorpermission is obtained from the department for transferring the imageselectronically to my PC.Ø Theadvantage of digital image over film is that the former can be accuratelystudied as it can be magnified for closer and better view thus reducing thechances of observation error. Ø  The evidence of age……?Ø Theimages are observed for secondary ossification centers and epiphyseal fusion.

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Ø Theimages are viewed for age and sex-specific changes.Ø Thestages of appearance and fusion of secondary ossification proposed byMcKern-Stewart method is used.Ø Thefindings, thus obtained, are compared with certain standards to see if thereare any variations or not.  IMPLICATIONS:§  Thefield of forensic medicine is designed in such a way that the knowledgeobtained is applied not only for the sufferer’s justice but also for theadministration of social justice.§  Ageis the one which determines the scenario post crime. §  Thisis because age of the defendant plays a crucial role.§  Itis the one which decides if the crime committed is an offense or not and if thedefendant should be punished or not.

§  Dueto discrepancies in the age of the defendant, neither he should be wronglypunished nor should he escape from punishment.§  Agemakes sure that the correct person of appropriate age is punished.§  Thusdetermining age with accuracy by radiological examination ensures betterment ofsocial justice.REFERENCES:1.

               ACOMPARATIVE STUDY OF AGE BETWEEN RADIOLOGICAL EXAMINATION OF ELBOW JOINT ANDBIRTH CERTIFICATES IN MALES S. Krishnaprasad 1 , K. Sudhakar Suresh 2 1Professor, Department of Forensic Medicine, S. V. S. Medical College, YenugondaVillage, Mahabubnagar (Dt . ), Telangana . 2 Assistant Professor , Departmentof Forensic Medicine, S.

V. S. Medical College, Yenugonda Village, Mahabubnagar(Dt .

), Telangana .2.               AGEDETERMINATION FROM RADIOLOGICAL STUDY OF EPIPHYSIAL APPEARANCE AND FUSIONAROUND ELBOW JOINT *Dr. S.S. Bhise, **Dr. S.

D. Nanandkar * Corresponding author, Assistant professor,Forensic medicine dept., Grant medical college Mumbai.**Professor, HOD,Forensic medicine dept., Grant medical college Mumbai.

        3.        STUDY OF OSSIFICATION CENTERS FUSION OFELBOW JOINT IN 15-17 YEARS                           GARHWALI   FEMALES OF DEHRADUN REGION.                                                                                                                                                    SatyaPrakash Dixit & R.K.Bansal.

        4.        RADIOLOGICAL STUDY OF EPIPHYSEAL FUSIONAT ELBOW REGION IN                    RELATION TO PHYSIOLOGICALFINDINGS IN 12-17 YEARS AGE GROUP.                                         DharmeshS. Patel, Dharmesh Shilajiya & Kalpesh A. Shah.        5.

         AGE DETERMINATION BY APPEARANCE ANDFUSION OF EPIPHYSIS OF ELBOW                    JOINT BY DIGITAL X-RAYSSTUDY IN THE  SGE GROUP OF 10-18 YEARS.                   1 Yogesh Sharma 2 Manoj Garg3 Anupama Garg.