RESEARCH Through my finding I have highlighted the

RESEARCHPAPER TOPIC:ROLE OF ASEAN IN CONFLICT RESOLUTION: CASE STUDY OF MYANMAR  SUBMITTEDBY: AMIRA JAVEED                TABLE OF CONTENTABSTRACTINTRODUCTIONTO THE TOPICBACKGROUNDCURRENTSITUATION IN MYANMARSOCIALASPECT POLITICALASPECT ECNOMICALASPECT RESEARCHQUESTIONHYPOTHESISASEANAND MYANMARASEANAND RECENT ROHINGYA CRISESCONCLUSIONREFRENCESABSTRACTTheResearch was conducted on ASEAN and it role in Conflict Resolution and my mainfocus will be on Myanmar. Myanmar is the south East Asian nation of more than100 ethic group.

It borders with India, Bangladesh, China and Thailand. Thelargest city of Myanmar is Yangon and the population of Myanmar is 52.89 million (2016).ASEAN was formed in 1967 and Myanmar has joint ASEAN as a member state in 1997after 10 years of its formation. Currently 10 states are associated with ASEAN.

Myanmar has a record of world longest ongoingconflict. Due to recent reforms of democratization Myanmar came under the lightof media and the recent ethnic conflict catch the attraction of internationalcommunity.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Through my finding I have highlighted the roleof ASEAN in Myanmar and I will sort out how far ASEAN is successful in Conflictresolution in Myanmar and if it is not successful then I will find out the reasonswhy ASEAN is ineffective in conflict resolution in Myanmar.Thefinding of the research is based on close and careful study of different books,article and research papers. I had watched different documentaries related tocurrent situation in Myanmar for this purpose.       INTRODUCTIONASEANis the Association of South East Nations is a regional organization aims topromotes economic, political and security cooperation among its members states.

It is formed in 2 august 1967. Since its formation Indonesia, Malaysia,Singapore, Philippine and Thailand are it member. Later its membership isexpanded to include Brunei, Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar and Vietnam. Currentlythere are 10 members’ states. The ASEAN was founded during cold war aims topromote stability in the region. This association was further expanded tocreate ASEAN PLUS THREE forum in 1977 which include Japan, South Korea andChina.Theorganization strive toward peace and stability in the nation, the membersstates have develop a treaty not to develop nuclear weapon and most have agreedon counter terrorism pact which include sharing intelligence and easing theextradition process of terror suspect.ASEANS1claims to opening up of Myanmar is most significant recent achievements, havingmonitored a policy of positive engagement and non- confrontation.

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Myanmarjoined ASEAN as a member on 23 July 1997. ASEAN approved Myanmar as a memberdespite objection from international community, which consider Myanmar as acrook country because a country is governed by military rule defendant of humanrights violation. In 2014 Myanmar hosted successfully ASEAN annual summit inits new political capital Naw Pyi Taw and started its new chapter of engagementwith regional group.

Despite lack of diplomatic experience the country thecountry has successfully organize more than 1000 meetings that the organizationholds each year.Afteryears of dictatorship Myanmar in 2015 military rule was peacefully resignedleadership to National League for Democracy (NLD) led by Daw Aung San Suu Kyi who won majority in nationaland regional level through election. It was the best event in for ASEAN andASEAN consider Myanmar as a success story.Beside this success story Myanmar is not thatmuch successful in regional initiative such as upholding in human rights etc.focusing on democracy and human rights issue the role of ASEAN in Myanmar isstill limited2BACKGROUDBurma has the greatest number ofoutfitted ethnic uprisings of all the part states in the Association ofSoutheast Asian Nations (ASEAN), and a settled regular limitation to the choicemilitary organization.

The ethnic uprisings began in 1948 while regularconfinement has grown more open in the midst of the latest decade. There areseven formally renowned ethnic social occasions in Burma isolated from theBurman overwhelming part: the Chin, Kachin, Karen, Karenni (Kayah), Mon,Rakhine (Arakanese) and Shan. This, in any case, fails to consider incalculabletalking more than 100 lingos.

This ethnic not too bad assortment and theseethno-loyalist objectives, joined with the communist advancement, shapedirritating issues.3 Myanmar got independence   on 4 January 1948, named the Union of Burmawith Sao Shwe Thaik as its first President and U Nu as its first PrimeMinister. Majority rules system completed in 1962 when General Ne Win drove amilitary overthrow. He oversaw for around 26 years and looked for after plansunder the rubric of the Burmese Way to Socialism. In the vicinity of 1962 and1974, Burma was directed by a dynamic board headed by the general, and aboutall parts of society (business, media, creation) were nationalized or broughtunder government control (counting the Boy Scouts). With a ultimate objectiveto consolidate control, General Ne Win and many best officers surrendered fromthe military and took non military staff posts and, from 1974, set up races ina one get-together system. In the region of 1974 and 1988, Burma wassatisfactorily overseen by General Ne Win through the Burma Socialist ProgramParty (BSPP).

 In 1988, trouble over money related screw upand political mishandle by the organization incited in all cases virtuoso votebased framework shows all through the country known as the 8888 Uprising.Security powers butchered a large number of demonstrators, and General SawMaung sorted out defiance and confined the State Law and Order RestorationCouncil (SLORC). In 1989, SLORC articulated military law after no matter howyou look at it questions. The military government closed plans for People’s 4Assemblyraces on 31 May 1989. SLORC changed the country’s real English name from the”Union of Burma” to the “Union of Myanmar” in 1989.In May1990, the governing body held free races unprecedented for practically 30years.

The National League for Democracy (NLD), the get-together of Aung San SuuKyi, won 392 out of a total 489 seats, however the choice comes to fruitionwere repudiated by SLORC, which declined to wander down. Driven by Than Shwesince 1992, the military organization has impacted stop to fire concurrenceswith most ethnic guerilla social occasions. In 1992, SLORC revealed plans tomake another constitution through the National Convention, which began 9January 1993. In 1997, the State Law and Order Restoration Council was renamedthe State Peace and Development Council (SPDC). On 23 June 1997, Myanmar wassurrendered into the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). Current situation in MyanmarTo describe the current situation we will look at the political,legal, economic, social and aspect of the country.

 ·      POLITCAL AND LEGAL ASPECTAdministeredby military junta (1962-now), with loaded with intimidation and no populargovernment ·        Numerous prodemocracy activists, commonsocial orders, and restriction components have been stifled, confined, andimprisoned without reasonable legal process (counting priests), and some ofthem were executed ·        Condemned and squeezed by Westernnations, and additionally UN (and ASEAN for some expands), yet moderately closewith India, China, and Russia (in 2007, the SC draft determination about humanrights infringement was vetoed by Russia and China) ·        To a great degree degenerate state (rank178 of 180 nations in 2008 Transparency Internationals CPI).·        Junta utilizing hostile to subversiveand inner security constitution to destruct the democratization procedure.·        2008 constitution submission guaranteedto held Election in 2010 and perform “vote based system” later on.

 ECOMICAL ASPECT·        Until 1960’s, Myanmar was the wealthiestnation in Southeast Asia and the world’s biggest exporter of rice. ·        Since administered by juntaadministration, normal rate of yearly GDP development just 2,9%, GDP per capitaUSD233 and expansion rate achieve 30-60% ·        Restricted venture and exchanging fromUS and other Western nations ·        Remote venture comes basically fromChina, Singapore, South Korea, India, and Thailand (India is the greatestfinancial specialist in regular assets and industry). ·        Absence of frameworks, with theexception of in Thai outskirt, through which the fundamental unlawfulmedications are trade.·        World’s second biggest maker of opium,and increasing national salary through illicit medications (some banks got 40%commission from cash clothing)— some of them worked together with MOGE(national oil organization).   SOCIAL ASPECT·       55 million populaces, with morethan 295,800 outcasts exist along Indian, Bangladeshi and Thai borders while afew thousand are in Malaysia. ·       135 unmistakable ethnicgatherings, with 108 dialects.

Bamar is the greatest ethnic, with 68% ofpopulace and Buddhist is the greatest religion. ·       Human Development Index 0,583(rank 132). ·       Minority ethnic and religiousmistreatment to join the armed force or land government positions, theprinciple course to achievement in the nation. ·       UN distinguished substantialhuman rights infringement, including enormous assault and executing of Karenminority ethnic by military. ·       Military junta confines theuniversal helpful aids to keep the general population’s reliance fromgovernment. ·       There are 101 colleges, 12foundations, 9 degree schools and 24 universities in Burma.

    RESEARCH QUESTION Why the role of ASEANS is noteffective in conflict resolution in conflict resolution in MYANMAR?      HYPOTHESIS Ithink the best hypothesis to my research question is that non –interferencepolicy is retarding ASEAN from taking meaningful action for conflictresolution.  ASEANAND MYANMARAswe know from the earliest that Myanmar joining of ASEAN is not that easyprocess. There were many opposition of Myanmar admission into ASEAN not onlyfrom external but Internal from ASEAN itself due to undemocratic system andMilitary rule in ASEAN. In the face of all these difficult situations Myanmarrealizes that in the age of Globalization and regionalism living in Isolationis not only difficult but it could May also be thread to the survival of thecounty. So joining of any regional organization became priority of the Myanmarat that time. But being the member of ASEAN still not be able deal withpolitical change and democratic transition in Myanmar. There was not such workhas been done by ASEAN to resolve the problem related to the military rule inMyanmar till 2015.

5Ifwe look at the history the conflict in Myanmar is most intractable conflict inthe whole world. Myanmar holds a record of 60 years ongoing civil war. Morethan 100 ethnic groups are fighting with each other to preserve their identityin front of majority barman.

The civil war started in 1948 with independencefrom British colonial rule. Many ethnic rebellion and communist insurgencybecame a reason behind the failure of parliamentary system formed after gettingindependence. To restore the country situation military took over thegovernment and then the military rule continued for five decades. In 2004military first step toward slow transition to democratic rule. New constitutionwas made in 2004 and in 2010 election was held. Democratic government emerges in2011.

Next elections were held in 2015 and Daw Su Kyi party came into power bywinning 80% seats through fair elections.In the Southeast Asianpolitics the policy of non-interference in the affairs of states is veryimportant and this noninterference principle limits the role of ASEAN inMyanmar. In resolve conflict ASEAN prefer the informal approach focusing onrelationships rather than formal structure. These are called soft approach. InMyanmar issues ASEAN is using soft approaches. In 42 ASEAN Ministerial meetingin Thailand the Prime minister of Thailand said “the soft way (ASEAN Way)approaches are is more productive rather than sanction mechanism that will makeMyanmar more isolated.

“Non- interference policy limit the role of ASEAN andMyanmar itself realize that summit diplomacy and consensus building is notenough for solving its issues therefore Myanmar refuse to debate it problemswith ASEAN.  ASEAN role is limited inMyanmar not only because of non – interference policy but also due lack ofcommitment from member states regarding human rights and conflict management.Non – interferencepolicy is considered the central pillar of Southeast Asian regionalism but onthe other hand this policy is also underpinning ASEAN from taking meaningfulaction like tackling with economic crises and security issues.6Therole played by ASEAN in Myanmar is not proved by any resolution. ASEAN isplaying the role of forum. There are different meetings in the forum to discussany problem. ASEAN is providing forum for a countries to discuss their issuesrelated to conflict resolution.

Many meeting took place I this forum forconflict resolution for example in 2000 ASEAN established ASEAN troika toenhance interaction and address the issue like regional peace and harmony. In2003 ASEAN planned ASEAN security community which declared that member statesshould promote political development to achieve peace, stability and securityin the region.7Myanmaris not only using ASEAN as a forum but also as an instrument. Myanmar is usingASEAN basic principle Non- interference to avoid participation of ASEAN in itsinternal affairs. It’s clearly showed that ASEAN don’t like those other partiesinterfere in its internal affairs especially ASEAN.

Myanmar is failed toresponse ASEAN rather it is intrumentaliziing the organization.ASEANand Rohingyas Crises8The Rohingyas crisesstarted in June 2012. At first there was communal riot between Rohingya Muslimand Rakhine Buddhist and later it turned into persecution and forcesdisplacement of Muslim minority.

Now five years later this issue is turned intohumanitarian cries and it’s a time for ASEAN to take important steps to resolvethe issue and to present a regional response.The ASEAN regions towhich the Myanmar is also a member is regionally, politically and economicallyinterconnected. It means the humanitarian crises and the conflict growing inone country can cause regional security thread.

For solution of such kind ofthread Myanmar has to change its attitude toward ASEAN and has to engage itselfwith others partners of ASEAN. Although ASEAN respect the sovereignty and Non –interference policy of other states, the regional grouping has now started workon conflict resolution, humanitarian issue and security promotion. 8AnASEAN nation has to promote preventive diplomacy, prevent conflicts and problemand address issues at both local and regional level. They ASEAN expressed itsfull support for Myanmar in order to bring peace, stability, rule of law and topromote reconciliation between various committees.ASEAN will lose itcredibility and confidence of international committee if it continues to ignorethe plight of Rohingya.

It has to act earlier to prevent Rohingya crises tobecome regional issue. If ASEAN will unable to contain these crises it willopen up the concept of Deeping cultural and religious division and potentialdanger of identity politics will be increased.CONCLUSION9ASEAN’sguideline of non-interference has permitted the part states to focus on countrybuilding and administration strength while keeping up agreeable ties withdifferent states. While ASEAN’s standard has never been outright, and hasfrequently been utilized as a device for legitimizing state-conduct in light ofa legitimate concern for the overwhelming political and monetary first class,lately regular interests have come to assume a more vital part in theaffiliation’s lead of provincial issues. This is occurring in light ofexpanding reliance among the part states and the developing acknowledgment thatstandards of good administration ought to be considered all together for therelationship to recapture importance and believability among the area’s own nationalsand also on the more extensive worldwide scene. In this regard, the rule’scapacity as a managing light for the affiliation’s conduct in territorialissues has turned out to be progressively delicate as of late.

With its newarrangement of taking into account open feedback of other states’ issues wherelocal security is in question, together with a more emphatic position on humanrights, ASEAN has moved past its conventional non-obstruction approach.However, the non-obstruction guideline, as it is deciphered today, still goesabout as a relatively solid restriction on ASEAN’s conduct in territorialissues. The rule’s directing capacity is truly undermined, yet to date anotherset of principles as a suitable substitution for the non-obstruction strategydemonstrates hard to create in light of the proceeding with localprecariousness in a considerable lot of the part states.

   1 Prospect for UN-ASEAN Cooperation in ConflictManagement, by M. C. Abad Jr    2 Can ASEAN Work together to find regional terrorismby Chester Cabalza 3Assessing ASEAN’s “Non-interference” principle: A lost cause forRohingyas? By Anant Mishra 4ASEAN and Myanmar – past, present andfutureMoe Thuzar 08 Aug 2017   5THE ROLE OF THE ASSOCIATION OF SOUTHEAST ASIAN NATIONS IN POST-CONFLICT RECONSTRUCTION AND DEMOCRACY SUPPORTJulio S. Amador III and Joycee A.Teodoro 6 ASEAN role in Myanmar by DavidRaja Marpuang S.IP M.Def 7 Myanmar and ASEAN build their relationship 8 ASEAN summit silence on Rohingyas ‘anabsolute travesty’byJC Gotinga15 Nov 2017 9 ASEAN Role in Myanmar Uploaded by my_new_diary on May 18,2010