romantic poetry terms

alliteration
repetition of consonant sounds at the beginnings of words. impart a musical quality to poems, creates mood, reinforces meaning, emphasizes particular words, unifies lines and stanzas

allusion
indirect reference to a person, place, event, or literary work with which the author believes the reader will be familiar

anaphora
repetition of a word or expression at the beginning of successive phrases, clauses, sentences or verses especially for rhetoric or poetic effect. -“we cannot dedicate-we cannot consecrate, we cannot hallow”

apostrophe
an object, an abstract quality or absent or imaginary person is addressed directly, as if present and able to understand. expresses powerful emotions. “roll on, thou deep and dark ocean, roll!”

assonance
a repetition of a vowel sound in two or more stressed syllables that do not end with the same consonant. emphasize certain words, to impart a musical quality, to create a mood, or to unify a passage. -“when i have fEArs, that i may cEAse to bE, before my pen has glEAned my tEEming brain”

blank verse
unrhymed poetry written in iambic pentameter (u/u/u/u/u/)

consonance
repetition of consonant sounds within and at the ends of words

enjambment
continuation of a sentence or clause over a line break. creates audible interest

frame narrative
when a story is told within a narrative setting or frame-creating a story within a story

hyperbole
truth is exaggerated for emphasis or humorous effect-“remained for an eternity”

imagery
words or phrases that create vivid sensory experiences for the reader. majority are visual, may also appeal to the other senses

internal rhyme
rhyme that occurs within a single line

irony
contrast between expectation and reality. surprises reader

literary ballad
a ballad (originally intended to be sung) with a single author- “rime of the ancient mariner”

lyric poetry
a short poem in which a single speaker expresses personal thoughts or feelings. strong melodic rhythms. marked by imagination and create a strong unified expression- “when i have fears that i may cease to be”

meditative poem
the speaker contemplates a particular subject. reflect the development of thought

metaphor
compares two things that have something in common. direct comparison- “time’s winged chariot” swift passage of time compared to a speeding chariot

meter
the repetition of a particular rhythmic unit in a line of poetry. iamb=unstressed followed by stressed

metonymy
using another word or phrase to express something-pig skin/football, mercedes/car

ode
a complex lyric poem that develops a serious and dignified theme. appeal to both the imagination and the intellect, and many commemorate events or praise people or elements of nature-shelley’s “ode to the west wing” and “to a skylark”

paradox
seems to contradict or oppose itself but, in fact, reveals some element of truth. -“my love is like to ice, and I to fire…” asks why his fire does not melt her ice

pathetic fallacy
attributes human qualities and emotions to inanimate objects of nature. ex-referring to weather features as reflecting a mood. -“the somber clouds darkened our mood”

personification
different from pathetic fallacy because it gives human qualities to abstract ideas, animate objects, or inanimate natural objects.-“the sparrow talked to us”

rhyme scheme
pattern of end rhyme in a poem-ABABCDCDetc

simile
compares two thing using “like” or “as”

sonnet
lyric poem of 14 lines, commonly in iambic pentameter
petrarchan=abbaabba
shakespearean=ababcdcd
spendarien=ababbcbccdcdee

symbol
person, place, or object that has a concrete meaning itself and also stands for something beyond itself

synasthesia
when an image describes one sensation in terms of another-“cold smell of potato mold”-smell w/touch

synecdoche
a part is made to represent the whole or vice versa-calling a car “wheels” because a part of the car stands for the whole car

romantic hero
birth and class unimportant, individual transcends society, battle is internal, “courage to be me”, heros make their own rules, passions are out of individual control, self knowledge valued more than physical strength, moody, isolated, and introspective, loyalty

byronic hero
strong sense of arrogance, intelligent, wounded, misunderstood, cunning and able to adapt, troubled past, sophisticated and educated, self-critical, mysterious, magnetic, charismatic, power of seduction and sexual attraction, dark attributes, cynicism, a good heart in the end

characteristics of romanticism
feeling with heart, spontaneity, rebellion, natural, intuitive truth, the language really spoken by man, experience, back to virtues of commonplace, unconscious creativity, personal verse-introspective, flights of fantasy-reliance on imagination, introverted inner world of poet, humor and pathos, passionate and full of emotion, sensuous, radical and innovative, lively and full of energy, extreme, poetry of spirit and soul-the spontaneous overflow of feelings