Rural interrelated except wherever anecdotal evidence is adduced

Ruralto urban migration has become a key issue in the study of economic development,but whether it should be promoted or discouraged is a debatable topic. Asdiscussed in the preceding chapters, rural-urban migration has both positiveand negative effects on the migrants, the place of origin and the place ofdestination. Migration is a selective process affecting individuals or familieswith certain economic, social, educational and demographic characteristics. Itoccurs as a response to economic development as well as social, cultural,environmental and political factors.

The socio-economic and demographicimplication of rural-urban migration does have significant impact on both ruraland urban areas (Lipton, 1980).InIndia, 68.9 per cent of the population lives in 6.40 lakh villages. The shareof agriculture to overall GDP in India has come down to 14 percent, while 66.2percent of rural males and 81.

6 percent of rural females are engaged inagriculture as cultivators or labourers. Inadequate diversification has takenplace in rural occupations as many 66.2 percent of rural males and 81.6 percentof rural females, reporting agriculture as their principal economic activity. Thereis continuous migration from the rural to urban areas in search of betteremployment opportunities and living standard (Razi, 2014). Migrationand poverty have become critical development issues in the contemporary world.Surprisingly, the two phenomena have seldom been considered interrelated exceptwherever anecdotal evidence is adduced on plausible effects of one on theother. Migration and poverty researchers, planners policymakers and programmeimplementers continue to work independent of one another, never comparing noteson the reciprocal relationship between the two.

Migration can both cause and becaused by poverty. Similarly, poverty can be alleviated as well as exacerbatedby population movement. Easy generalizations are impossible to make but it islikely that the relative impact of migration on poverty, and of poverty onmigration, varies by level of development of the area under consideration. Insome parts of the world and under certain conditions, poverty may be a rootcause of migration, whereas in other parts, under different conditions, thepoor will be among the last to move.

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Equally, in some areas, migration may bean avenue out of poverty while in others it contributes to an extension ofpoverty (Skeldon, 1997).TYPES OFMIGRANTS Internal Migrants in India can be classified intothe following types:  1)     Migrants byplace of birth – People who are enumerated at a place other than their place ofbirth. 2)    Migrants byplace of last residence- People who are enumerated at a place other than theirplace of immediate last residence.RURAL-URBANMIGRATION : SOME EMERGING TRENDS:·        The migration rate in the urban areas(35%) was far higher than the migration rate in the rural areas (26%). ·        Magnitude of male migration rate was farlower than female migration rate, in both rural and urban areas. In rural areasnearly 48% of the females were migrants while the male migration rate was only5%, and in the urban areas, the male migration rate was nearly 26% compared tofemale migration rate of 46%. ·        Migration rate in rural areas was lowestamong the scheduled tribe (ST), nearly 24%, and it was highest among thoseclassified in the social group ‘others’, nearly 28%.

·        In urban areas, migration rate waslowest among other backward class (OBC) nearly 33%, and it was highest amongthose classified in the social group ‘others’, nearly 38%. ·        For rural male, migration rate waslowest (nearly 4%) among the ‘not literates’, and it was nearly 14% among thosewith educational level ‘graduate and above’. For urban males also, it waslowest for among the ‘not literate’ (17%), and 38% for those with educationallevel ‘graduate or above’ level.·        Among the migrants in the rural areas,nearly 91% had migrated from the rural areas and 8% had migrated from the urbanareas, whereas among the migrants in the urban areas, nearly 59% migrated fromthe rural areas and 40% from urban areas.·        Nearly 60% of urban male migrants and59% of urban female migrants had migrated from rural areas.·        The most prominent reason for femalemigration in both the rural and urban areas was marriage : for 91% of ruralfemale migrants and 61% of the urban female migrants the reason was marriage.

·        The reason for migration for malemigrant, was dominated by employment related reasons, in both rural and urbanareas. Nearly 29% of rural male migrants and 56% of urban male migrants hadmigrated due to employment related reasons.·        A higher percentage of the persons werefound to be engaged in economic activities after migration : for males thepercentage of workers increased from 51% before migration to 63% aftermigration in rural areas and from 46%-70% in urban areas, while for females itincreased from 20%-33% in rural areas and from 8%-14% in urban areas.·        For rural males, self-employment hademerged as main recourse to employment after migration. The share ofself-employment in total migrants increased from 16% before migration to 27%after migration, while the shares of regular employees and casual laboursremained almost stable, in both before and after migration (GoI, 2010).PUSH AND PULLFACTORS PopulationPressure: The growing populationpressure on our natural resources has led to a stage where they are being usedand depleted at a rate more than their natural rate of formation. Thepopulation pressure limits already limited opportunities and resources in therural areas. More population means more and more peoples have to share thelimited resources available with the rural families.

This also forces them tomigrate to safe destinations (Kumar, 2014).Decreasing percapita availability of land:The increasing population has led to the fragmentation of land. The per capitaavailability of land has decreased considerably.

More than eighty per cent ofthe farmers are now marginal and small. Such small holdings have now becomeuneconomical. The growing number of farmer suicides and the dropping out offarmers from their profession is an indicator of this. Farming community is nowlooking out for other alternatives. This also has catalytic effect in migrationto urban centers for better earning opportunities (Kumar, 2014).

Climate refugee: Dr. Thomas Fingar, Deputy Director of NationalIntelligence for Analysis and Chairman of the National Intelligence Councilcurrent research in Asia has reported that South, Southeast, and East Asia willface risks of reduced agricultural productivity as large parts of the regionface increased risk of floods and droughts. By 2025, cereal crop yields willdecrease 2.5-10 percent. The credit for identifying the migration due toclimate change goes to Jodi Jacobson.

The number of peoples who will migrate toother places to save themselves from the harsh extremities of weather due toincreasing temperature will be more than from any other type of migration inthe coming decades. Lack of livelihood opportunities: Lack of livelihoodopportunities in rural areas coupled with the absence of even day to day basicneeds like good schools, health care facilities, financial institutions,inaccessibility and suitable markets have also compelled the rural peoples tomigrate to their nearest urban centers (Kumar,2014). Improvement incommunication and transport facilities:The areas which once were inaccessible and beyond reach are now accessiblehaving good roads, communication and transport facilities. This has favoredmigration of the rural communities.

Whenever they have lean periods or offseason they migrate to urban areas for earning and then return back with thestart of sowing season. Such type of seasonal and circular (also known ascyclical, oscillatory) migration has long been part of the livelihood portfolioof poor people across India. Urban areas also represent better educational,healthcare, employment opportunities which act as a pulling force for the ruralpeoples towards them (Kumar, 2014). Employment: Most of the rural peoples leave their houses andmove to cities in search of employment in various types of industries.

In urbanareas many different type of industries flourish (Table 1) which have thecapacity to absorb work force in large numbers.Table 1: Percentage of rural migrants employed indifferent industries (NSSO, 2010) Sl. No Industry Percentage of rural migrants 1 Construction 41.6 2 Agriculture 23.6 3 Manufacturing 17 4 Mining and Quarrying 1.3 5 Trade 7.3 6 Transport 16.8 CAUSES FORMIGRATION:Causesof Migration There are numerous causes of migration from rural to urban centersand vice versa or from one region to another.

Notable among these are (Razi , 2014): 1.      Socialconflicts and social tension 2.      Gapin civilization / culture 3.      Lawand Order situation 4.

      Inequalitiesin the available social and economic opportunities and other amenities of lifebetween groups of people and or sectors. 5.      Incomemaximization. 6.      Inequitabledistribution of benefits of economic development. 7.      Socialmobility and social status aspiations.

8.      Residentialsatisfaction. 9.      Friendand family influences 10.  Desirefor attaining lifestyle, performance and enjoyment. 11.  Developmentof some sort of complex.

CONSEQUENCES OFMIGRATION:1.     Urbanization:Migration aids in Urbanization. Thomson also viewed urbanization in the form ofmigration. Preston considers rural urban migration as an indicator of regionaland sectoral distortions in the pattern of development. The UN also estimatedthat about 60 per cent of the urban growth in developing countries is due tothe rate of natural increase of urban areas and the remaining 40 per cent isdue to migration.

Migration is the chief mechanisim by which all the world’sgreatest urbanization trends have been accomplished (UNFPA, 2006).2.     Rural depopulation: Migration to urban areas results in ruraldepopulation.

As most of the productive work force leaves rural areas in searchof better opportunities the rural areas are left behind with the old and theunable (UNFPA, 2006).3.     Social status:Migration is helpful in equalizing social status, income of rural urbansettlements, checking fragmentation of land holdings and promotes concept ofdivision of labour and specialization. Migration also helps in culturaldiffusion and cultural assimilation as peoples from diverse cultures settle andin due course of time they share and exchange their cultural values and ethosthus helping in cultural diffusion (UNFPA, 2006).

4.    Remittances:Income sent home in the form of monetary assistance can help in paying thedebts, increasing food security, help diversify livelihoods and to reducevulnerability associated with shocks. The NSSO 64th report also states thatnearly 10 per cent of the households in the rural areas had used remittancesfor ‘debt repayment’ and nearly 13 per cent of the households in the urbanareas had used remittances for ‘saving/ investment’. The Reserve Bank of India(RBI) has reported that Indians living abroad transferred $24.6 billion toIndia in the fiscal year 2005-2006.

India, thus, continues to retain itsposition as the leading recipient of remittances in the world (UNFPA, 2006).The National Commission for Rural Labour had firstfocused on a policy agenda for migration. Recently, the NCEUS has suggested (GOI, 2017):      I.           A systematicapproach to labor migration within the framework of policies and programs forinformal workers    II.           A comprehensivelegislation for informal workers, covering minimum labor standards and issuesspecific to migrant labor  III.           A universalminimum social security package for informal workers incorporating threeelements crucial for extending the coverage to migrant workers, viz.

, completeportability in terms of registration, payment of premium (where applicable),and receipt of benefits  IV.           To involvegrassroots organizations in the registration of workers and that the workers beissued a family smart security ID card, which could be simultaneously utilizedby the migrant and her/his family members   V.           Livelihoodpromotion, addressing the regulatory framework in urban areas, and an approachto agricultural and rural development.THE CONSEQUENCESOF HUMAN MIGRATION:1.     Demographic Cosequences: Migration may have profound effects on the size,structure and growth patterns of populations.

Migration has effects on bothpopulations of the patterns of populations. Migration has effects on bothpopulation of the places that people leave & on the populations of those inwhich they settle. These effects vary with different types of migration of migrants stay in places.

The absence of large number of either men orwomen may have a limited impact on the sending society in short term but ifthey are absent for longer periods time their absence will have significanteffects on population growth rates in the medium and longer terms (Singapur & Sreenivasa, 2014). 2.     Social Consequences: Migration may have important on the cultures migration also has effects on the cultures of both the places thatmigrants leave and those in which they re-settle. These effects vary withdifferent types of migration the skills of the skills of the migrants & thelengths of time involved (Singapur , 2014). 3.     Political Consequences: Migration can have an impact on politics in boththe places which people leave and those to which they move Governments willhave to make policies to attract migrants, to persuade migrants to return, orto limit migration to ensure that they have access to skills that they need.These are political effects very with different types of migration (Singapur & Sreenivasa, 2014).

4.      Economic Consequences: Migration can have significant effect on economics.Migration has impact on the economies that people leave and those in which theyre-settle.

These effects vary with different types of migration, the skills ofthe migration and length of time involved (Singapur& Sreenivasa, 2014).NEED FOR POLICYINTERVENTIONS:The issues and challenges of rural to urbanmigration and its economic impact and social consequences have overridingeffects on the socioeconomic conditions of these people and hence significantlydraw the attention of policy makers and planners to address such issues. Theneed of the hour is a lateral approach and need of different perspective toaddress and understand this social flux. To control rural-urban migration,there is need of policy interventions; and among many, few interventions havebeen elaborated categorically by addressing the problems at the place oforigin.

As the migration by far assumed to be distressed one, therefore policyfocus has been clustered around the distressed factors which are enlisted aspush factors in the model (Mohapatra, 2014):·        MNREGA hasfetched magnetic changes in the rural life – economically and socially. It hasmade sure that each adult member of a family, male or female is provided with100 days of work in year. This is certainly raises the purchasing power of thefamily and help in getting their livelihood. This kind of stable, safe andsecured income has always motivated them to work in their native land and hencepossibly create an atmosphere to control migration to a great extent. ·        Although theMNREGA has started with best of intentions but real benefits is not beingshared by the target demography.

There is lot of loopholes at the stage ofimplementation and accounting process. Bringing rigor and transparency inimplementation and furthermore community involvement may certainly controlmigration in large scale.·        Provisioning ofbetter and adequate education and health facilities in the rural area is one ofthe essentials to control the pace and magnitude of migration. Beside,vocational education should be added to the curriculum and especially for ruralcolleges so as to give a practical exposure to the rural students to get theirlivelihood. The government should give importance to social sector developmentespecially on housing, drinking water, medical facilities and education too.·        Increase inagricultural productivity may deter the migration process.

the governmentshould promote sustainable agricultural practices in general and at the areaswhere migration is dominant in particular through special provisioning ofirrigation, high yield variety seeds, fertilizer in subsidized rate. Beside,provision of agricultural credit facility at large and crop insurance may addto the effort.·        Dairying hasbecome the secondary source of income among many families in rural areas. Thegovernment should give more emphasis to the National Diary Plan to increasemilk production and thereby creating avenues to keep hold the people to theirindigenous occupations. Similarly focus should be given on fisheries andpoultry as a source of income and employment to revamp the rural economy.

·        The governmentshould encourage other allied sectors to enhance job creation in the villagesthrough high value agriculture like horticulture, floriculture and etc.·        To increaseincome and employment, the government should ensure development of non-farmrural activity, beside its farm counterpart.·        VillageEntrepreneurship Program should be initiated and incentives should be providedto the rural youth to start their new venture with the help of available ruralresources. To make it more successful, the government should provide trainingand teach them necessary skills for excellence.·        Special efforthas to be made to preserve the forest and to stop deforestation in the tribalbelt which may slow down the pace of migration and help the natives to gettheir livelihood at their place of origin.

·        Electricitybecomes an inevitable part of human being, without which life become miserable.Life style of rural people has undergone drastic changes and therefore toensure sustainable rural development, there is need of continuous supply ofelectricity.·        All the urbanfacilities like mobile services, multi channel TV connection, and medical andimproved transportation facilities are very much essential to give a descentliving in rural areas. Faster rural infrastructure development will certainlycontrol migration in India.

CONCLUSION:Themagnitude and variety of internal migration flow in India as well as thedistresses associated with them are enormous. A basic overview of this complexphenomenon makes clear that in spite of the vast contribution of migrants toIndia?s economy the social protections available to them still remain sparse.The economy of the country is based on agriculture; as a result rural to ruralstream dominates in the migration process. As far as reasons of migration areconcerned employment among males and „marriage? among female is the main reasonsof migration in the country.

In spite of number of studies have been conductedstill there is a lot issues related to the migration has not been addressed.The main cause and concern behind the migration is the economic factor; soagriculture and non-farm sector at rural landscape should be given the toppriority to control migration.