Salmonellosis sites, evaluation of disinfectants and development of

 Salmonellosis belong to the most prevalent
food-borne zoonosis throughout the world. Food animals have been identified as
reservoirs for nontyphoid Salmonella infections. In poultry, host-specific
Salmonella infections cause fowl typhoid and pullorum diseases that produce
economic losses in different parts of the world. These diseases have been
eradicated in many developed countries, but they remain responsible for
economic losses in the poultry industry in developing countries. The most
important source for human infection with non-host adapted Salmonella organisms
represent contaminated foods. It is concluded that the food categories possibly
posing the greatest hazard to public health include raw meat and some meat products
intended to be eaten raw, raw or undercooked products of poultry meat, eggs and
products containing raw eggs, unpasteurized milk and some products thereof. On
the basis of a detailed analysis on the frequency of detection of Salmonella
serotypes in foods and infected humans (Steinbach and Hartung, 1999), it was
possible to conclude that ca. 20 % of all human cases of salmonellosis are
caused by Salmonella originating from swine (mostly S. Typhimurium) and that
ca. 60 % to 65 % of human infections are caused by Salmonella arising from
poultry, eggs and egg products (nearly exclusively S. Enteritidis). Successful
control of Salmonella infections in poultry starts at the farm and includes
qualified management in connection with strictly observed zoo sanitary
measures. These measures are very important to avoid that hatching eggs,
day-old chicks, feed, water, the poultry house, rodents and residual
environmental contamination become the source of infection in fresh uninfected
stock. Identification of Salmonella survival sites, evaluation of disinfectants
and development of highly effective cleansing and disinfection regimes are
necessary. Several measures have been used to prevent and control Salmonella
infections in poultry, and vaccination is the most practical measure because it
avoids contamination of poultry products and by-products and prevents disease
in humans. Salmonella vaccines can decrease public health risk by reducing
colonization and organ invasion, including invasion of reproductive tissues, and
by diminishing fecal shedding and environmental contamination.


Keywords: food-borne , host, pullorum,
raw meat, Zoonosis

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