Salmonellosis sites, evaluation of disinfectants and development of

 Salmonellosis belong to the most prevalentfood-borne zoonosis throughout the world. Food animals have been identified asreservoirs for nontyphoid Salmonella infections. In poultry, host-specificSalmonella infections cause fowl typhoid and pullorum diseases that produceeconomic losses in different parts of the world. These diseases have beeneradicated in many developed countries, but they remain responsible foreconomic losses in the poultry industry in developing countries. The mostimportant source for human infection with non-host adapted Salmonella organismsrepresent contaminated foods.

It is concluded that the food categories possiblyposing the greatest hazard to public health include raw meat and some meat productsintended to be eaten raw, raw or undercooked products of poultry meat, eggs andproducts containing raw eggs, unpasteurized milk and some products thereof. Onthe basis of a detailed analysis on the frequency of detection of Salmonellaserotypes in foods and infected humans (Steinbach and Hartung, 1999), it waspossible to conclude that ca. 20 % of all human cases of salmonellosis arecaused by Salmonella originating from swine (mostly S. Typhimurium) and thatca. 60 % to 65 % of human infections are caused by Salmonella arising frompoultry, eggs and egg products (nearly exclusively S.

Enteritidis). Successfulcontrol of Salmonella infections in poultry starts at the farm and includesqualified management in connection with strictly observed zoo sanitarymeasures. These measures are very important to avoid that hatching eggs,day-old chicks, feed, water, the poultry house, rodents and residualenvironmental contamination become the source of infection in fresh uninfectedstock. Identification of Salmonella survival sites, evaluation of disinfectantsand development of highly effective cleansing and disinfection regimes arenecessary. Several measures have been used to prevent and control Salmonellainfections in poultry, and vaccination is the most practical measure because itavoids contamination of poultry products and by-products and prevents diseasein humans. Salmonella vaccines can decrease public health risk by reducingcolonization and organ invasion, including invasion of reproductive tissues, andby diminishing fecal shedding and environmental contamination.  Keywords: food-borne , host, pullorum,raw meat, Zoonosis