Ubiquitination, a proteasomal degradation process, is based on covalent attachment of ubiquitin to a substrate lysine on a target protein, marking the protein for its degradation 1-7. This process renews intracellular proteins balancing the rate of degradation with the rate of protein synthesis, resulting in homeostasis 4. Homeostasis is achieved by eliminating damaged proteins which …

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Modern genetics

The concept of genetic engineering can be traced back to at least 8000 BC in the Middle East, Orient and the Americas (Roger Straughan, 1996). However, more recently in history this concept was used by the Nazi’s in an attempt to create a ‘super race’ through their ‘eugenics’ programme. We are now able to alter …

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The prokaryotic type II clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cas9 system is rapidly revolutionizing the genetic engineering field, altering the genomes of large varieties of organisms with relative ease. Cancer genetics can be changed using experimental approaches based on this multipurpose technology 1. Principal component of the Type II CRISPR/Cas system is the Cas9 …

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