Social Studies Chapter 9

What were the Dark Ages?
A time when ancient Greece fell into a period of warfare and disorder.

What was the Classical Age?
The Classical Age was a time when Greece created many great achievements.

What is a polis?
The Greek word for city-state.

What is an acropolis?
A high hill in the middle of a city.

What is democracy?
A type of government in which people rule themselves.

What are aristocrats?
Rich land owners.

What is an oligarchy?
A government in which only a few people have power.

What are citizens?
People who had the right to participate in government.

What is a tyrant?
A leader who held power through the use of force.

Who was Pericles?
Pericles was a Greek ruler who ruled during the peak of democracy. He led the government from about 460 BC until his death in 429 BC. Pericles encouraged people to participate in the government.

Who was Homer?
Homer is considered the most famous ancient Greek poet. He wrote the poems: The odyssey and the Iliad

What is mythology?
A body of stories about gods and heroes that try to explain how the world works.

What was lyric poetry and who was the most famous lyric poet?
Lyric poetry was poetry that was set to music. A lyric poet usually played an instrument called a lyre. The most famous lyric poet was a woman named Sappho.

Who was Aesop?
Aesop was a Greek man who wrote fables that taught lessons about life.

What is a fable?
A short story that taught a life lesson or gave advice on how to live.

Who was Peisistratus?
Peisistratus was a tyrant who overthrew the oligarchy.

Who was Draco?
Draco was a Greek ruler with very harsh laws and very harsh punishments.

What were the three types of government in ancient Greece?
Oligarchy, Tyranny, Democracy.

Who were the Macedonians?
The Macedonians were a people who lived in Northern Greece. Eventually, they conquered all of Greece.

What are the two types of democracy and why do they work differently depending on population?
The two types of democracy are direct democracy and representative democracy. Direct democracy involved all citizens discussing issues and voting on them. A representative democracy involved citizens electing officials to make laws. Representative democracies work better with large populations because with too many people, it can be difficult to reach a decision with a direct democracy.

Who were some of the great Greek heroes of mythology? What did some of them do?
Theseus, Jason, and Hercules. Hercules slayed the hydra and complete many tasks that seemed impossible. He is known for his strength. Theseus slayed the Minotaur, a beast on Crete.

Who were the Minoans and the Myceneans?
The Minoans were a very early people who lived on the Greek island of Crete. They were known for their shipbuilding. They are not considered Greek because they did not speak the Greek language. The Minoans died suddenly of an unknown cause, but many people think that a volcano wiped them out. The Mycenaeans were the first Greek people. They lived on the mainland of Greece and built great fortresses. When the Mycenaeans fell, Greece fell into its Dark Age.

Where did Greeks in need of advice go?
They went to Delphi, a city in central Greece. While there, they spoke to the oracle, a female priest of Apollo to whom they thought the god gave answers.

Why were Greek colonies established?
To explore, to deal with population, and to make trading easier.

God of celebration
Dionysus

Goddess of hearth
Hestia

God of metalworking
Hephaestus

God of Sun
Apollo

Goddess of love
Aphrodite

Messenger God
Hermes

King of Gods
Zeus

Queen of Gods
Hera

God of sea
Posidon

God of underworld
Hades

God of war
Ares

Goddess of agriculture
Demeter