Sociology: social activity. It is a social unit

Sociology:Sociology is thescientific study of society, including patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and cultureInstitution:The family is generally regarded as a major socialinstitution and a locus of much of a person’s social activity.

It is a socialunit created by blood, marriage, or adoption, and can be described as nuclear(parents and children) or extended (encompassing other relatives)Definition:Is a group of social positions connected by social relations, performinga social roleSocial institutions are a system of behavioral andrelationship patterns that are densely interwoven and enduring, and functionacross an entire society. They order and structure the behavior of individualsby means of their normative character.Theterm “institution” commonly applies to both informal institutionssuch as customs, or behavior patterns important to a society, and to particular formalinstitutions created by entities such as the government and public services.Primary or meta-institutions are institutions such as the family that are broad enough to encompass other institutionsMajor Social Institution:v Thefamily v Educationv Religionv EconomicInstitutionsv Governmentas a Social Institution v Economyv Language and Media.  Family:v The concept of family isone with which almost every individual can identify.v  A Family is a social group characterized bycommon residence economic cooperation and reproduction. ·        Family is a micro unit of social system ·        Family is an institute of social system ·        Family is a key of social system ·        An institution is a part of social system The Familyis a Universal Institution:Thefamily as the foundation of society it forms the basic unit of socialorganization and it hard to imagine how society could function without thefamily.

The family is considered a good thing for individuals andsociety. Overall,I think that the family is a universal institution, because the family can havemany different structures for different cultures and societies, which all meetthe family functions in different waysIn functionalistthought, the family is a particularly important institution as this is the’basic building block’ of society which performs the crucial functions of socializingthe young and meeting the emotional needs of its members. Stable familiesunderpin social order and economic stability.Functionalists focus on the positive functions of the nuclearfamily, such as secondary socialization and the stabilization of adult personalities.

Functionalism:·       The family performs several essential functions for society. Itsocializes children, it provides emotional and practical support for itsmembers, it helps regulate sexual activity and sexual reproduction, and itprovides its members with a social identity.·       Family problems stem from sudden or far-reaching changes in thefamily’s structure or processes; these problems threaten the family’s stabilityand weaken society.

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·       According to functionalism, society is a system of interconnected partsthat work together in harmony to maintain a state of balance and socialequilibrium for the whole.  For example, each of the social institutions contributes importantfunctions for society: Family provides a context for reproducing, nurturing,and socializing children; education offers a way to transmit a society’sskills, knowledge, and culture to its youth;  Family and Conflictv Conflict theory is a tool used in identifyingfamily issues in order to find ways to fix themv Conflict theorists agreethat the family serves the important functions just listed, but they also pointto problems within the family that the functional perspective minimizes oroverlooks altogether.v First, the family as a social institutioncontributes to social inequality. Because families pass along their wealth totheir children, and because families differ greatly in the amount of wealththey have, the family helps reinforce existing inequality. v As it developedthrough the centuries, and especially during industrialization, the family alsobecame more and more of a patriarchal unit (since men made money working infactories while women stayed home), helping to reinforce men’s status at thetop of the social hierarchy. v Second, the family can also be a source of conflictfor its own members. Although the functional perspective assumes the familyprovides its members emotional comfort and support, many families do just theopposite and are far from the harmonious, happy groups   Instead,They argue, shout, anduse emotional cruelty and physical violence.  v  The conflictperspective emphasizes that many of the problems we see in today’s families’stem from economic inequality and from patriarchy.

The problems that manyfamilies experience reflect the fact that they live in poverty or near poverty.Money does not always bring happiness, but a dire lack of money produces stressand other difficulties that impair a family’s functioning and relationships.   Symbolicinteractionism v Symbolic interactionismemphasizes that human behavior is influenced by definitions and meanings thatare created and maintained through symbolic interaction with others.v The symbolicperspective arises when:Human beings have the capacity to create symbols with different meanings associated with each.

 Symbols are used as means communication and Thereby become part of our language.                                                   Even the buildings, dress, the flag, and a type                         of color may be taken as symbols indicating some aspect of                              Human behavior as well as society’s outlook.v These based on the development that takes place in that instituitionwith the passage of time.vSymbolic interactionism also suggests that ouridentity or sense of self is shaped by social interaction. We develop ourself-concept by observing how others interact with us a label us. Types of family:Joint family:Iftwo or more nuclear families live together under a common shelter, and share acommon hearth, and a common purse, then this type of family is known as jointfamilyNuclear Family:Thenuclear family is the traditional type of family structure. This family typeconsists of two parents and children.

The nuclear family was long held inesteem by society as being the ideal in which to raise children. Single Parent Family:·       The single parent family consists of one parent raising one or morechildren on his own. ·       A single parent family is a mother with herchildren, although there are single fathers as well.

·       The single parentfamily is the biggest change society has seen in terms of the changes in familystructures. One in four children is born to asingle mother.·       Singleparent families are generally close and find ways to work together to solveproblems, such as dividing up household. When only one parent is at home, itmay be a struggle to find childcare, as there is only one parent working. ·       Thislimits income and opportunities in many cases, although many single parentfamilies have help from relatives and friends.Childless FamilyWhile most people think of family as including children, there are couples whoeither cannot or choose not to have children.

Childless families consist of ahusband and wife living and working together.Blended family:The term blended family or stepfamily describesfamilies with mixed parents: one or both parents remarried, bringing childrenof the former family into the new family. Traditional family refersto “a middle-class family with a bread-winning father and a stay-at-homemother, married to each other and raising their biological children·        In terms of communication patterns in families, there are acertain set of beliefs within the family that reflect how its members shouldcommunicate and interact. These family communication patterns arise from twounderlying sets of beliefsMonogamous family:A monogamous family is based on a legal or social monogamy. In this case, an individual hasonly one (official) partner during their lifetime or at any one time (I.

e. serial monogamy) This means that a personmay not have several different legal spouses at the same time, as this isusually prohibited by bigamy laws,in jurisdictions that require monogamous marriages.Polygamous familyØ   Polygamy is a marriage that includes more thantwo partners. When a man is married to more than one wife at a time, therelationship is called polygyny; and when a woman is married to more than onehusband at a time, it is called polyandry. If a marriage includes multiple husbands andwives, it can be called polyamory group or conjoint marriage.

 RelationshipFamilies, friends and relationships can be affected by awide range of issues including domestic violence, abuse, isolation, mentalillness, caring responsibilities and family breakdown. Poverty is the rootcause of many issues within families and relationships as it can lead toincreased financial and emotional pressure.The title ‘Families,Relationships and Societies’ encompasses the fluidity, complexityand diversity of contemporary social and personal relationships and their needto be understood in the context of different societies and cultures.  Bringing together a range of social scienceperspectives, with a strong policy and practice focus, it is also stronglyinformed by sociological theory and the latest methodological approachesFamilyrelationship Means relatedness or connection by blood or marriage 1 relationship provide love protection & guide 2 help to build your confidence & self esteem 3 provide a sense of belonging and independence §  Theprimary function of the family is to ensurethe continuation of society, both biologically through procreation,and socially through socialization. Given these functions, the nature ofone’s role in the family changes over time.§  Socialinteractionist understandings of the family emphasize how family membersinteract on a daily basis.

In this regard, several studies find that husbandsand wives communicate differently in certain ways that sometimes impedeeffective communicationFunctionalperspective:  The family performs several essential functionsfor society. It socializes children, it provides emotional and practicalsupport for its members, it helps regulate sexual activity and sexualreproduction, and it provides its members with a social identity. In addition,sudden or far-reaching changes in the family’s structure or processes threatenits stability and weaken society.The conflict that arises is the family contribution tosocial inequality by reinforcing economic inequality and by reinforcing patriarchy.The family can also be a source of conflict, including physical violence andemotional cruelty, for its own members.

SymbolicInteractionism: Is the interaction of family members and intimate couples involvesshared understandings of their situations. Wives and husbands have differentstyles of communication, and social class affects the expectations that spouseshave of their marriages and of each other. The Functionalist Perspective:The functionalist perspective of gender rolessuggests that gender roles exist to maximize social efficiency.§  Women play variety ofsignificant roles in our society from their birth till the end of life. Evenafter playing her all the roles and all the job timely in efficient manner inthe modern society, she is weak because men are still strongest gender of thesociety.

Even after lots of awareness programs, rules and regulations in thesociety by the government, her life is more complicated than a man. She has totake care of herself and family members as daughter, granddaughter, sister,daughter-in-law, wife, mother, mother-in-law, grandmother, etc. By followingsuch a big responsibility in the family, they are fully able to come out and dojob for bright future of own, family and country. §  Women are not things whichcan be neglected because of their less power and authority instead they shouldbe empowered and promoted to get higher education. Women are the halfpopulation of the world mean half power of the world. If women of any countryare not empowered mean that country is lack of half power. By nature, womenplay their all the roles with great responsibilities and have capability tomake a healthy family, solid society and powerful country.

§  Thefunctionalist perspective of gender roles suggests that gender roles exist tomaximize social efficiency §  Complex systemwhose parts work together to promote solidarity and stability. This approachlooks at society through a macro-level orientation, which is a broad focus onthe social structures that shape society as a whole, and looks at both socialstructure and social functions§  Women take careof the home while men provide for the family. Thus gender, like other socialinstitutions, contributes to the stability of society as a wholeThe ConflictPerspective:Conflict theory suggests that men, as thedominant gender, subordinate women in order to maintain power and privilege insociety.

§  In mostcultures, men have historically held most of the world’s resources. Untilrelatively recently, women in Western cultures could not vote or hold property,making them entirely dependent on men. Men, like any other group with a poweror wealth advantage, fought to maintain their control over resources (in thiscase, political and economic power).

Conflict between the two groups causedthings like the Women’s Suffrage Movement and was responsible for socialchange.§  Therefore, mencan be seen as the dominant group and women as the subordinate group. Whilecertain gender roles may have been appropriate in a hunter-gatherer society,conflict theorists argue that the only reason these roles persist is becausethe dominant group naturally works to maintain their power and status.§  whenwomen become wage earners, they gain power in the family structure and createmore democratic arrangements in the home, although they may still carry themajority of the domestic burden.§  According toconflict theory, social problems are created when dominant groups exploit oroppress subordinate groups. Therefore, their approach is normative in that itprescribes changes to the power structure, advocating a balance of powerbetween genders.

The Interactionist Perspective:§  Froma symbolic interactionist perspective, gender is produced and reinforcedthrough daily interactions and the use of symbols.§  Accordingto interactionist, gender stratification exists because people act toward eachother on the basis of the meanings they have for one another. §  Symbolicinteractionism aims to understand human behavior by analyzing the critical roleof symbols in human interaction.§  For example, that you walk into a bank, hoping to get asmall loan for school, a home, or a small business venture. If you meet with amale loan officer, you might state your case logically, listing all of the hardnumbers that make you a qualified applicant for the loan.

This type of approachwould appeal to the analytical characteristics typically associated withmasculinity. If you meet with a female loan officer, on the other hand, youmight make an emotional appeal, by stating your positive social intentions.This type of approach would appeal to the sensitive and relationalcharacteristics typically associated with femininity.Effects of urbanization and Industrialization: Industrialization leadsto urbanization by creating economic growth and jobopportunities that draw people to cities. The urbanization processtypically begins when a factory or multiple factories are established within aregion, thus creating a high demand for factory labor.o  industrialization refers to the shift form an agriculturaleconomy to one that is based on factory production. Industrialization wasconsidered as a factor that transformed British society in many respects.

o   Industrializationand urbanization have dramatically changed the shape of families, including thegender roles. §  Functionalism:It transforms societal organizations, the role of the family,demographic structures, the nature of work, and the way we choose to live andwith whom. It also modifies domestic roles and relations within the family, andredefines concepts of individual and social responsibility.§  As a result, families become smallerrelatively quickly, not only because parents have fewer children on average,but also because the extended family typical of rural settings is much lesscommon in urban areas.

Children are clearly less useful in urban settlements,as units of labor and producers, than in rural settings, and are more expensiveto house and feed. In fact, fertility levels in developed countries have droppedso low that cities are seldom capable of reproducing their ownpopulations. §  According to Parsons afterindustrialisation the family became nuclear, it had become structurallyisolated from wider family and they had no binding obligation the their widerkinship, also due to the change in structure and demands of the family theindustrial nuclear family has lost some of its functions to other institutionssuch as school and health services.Familysystems of PakistanJoint faimly helps children to understand andvalue different relationships respecting each and keeping the feeling oftogetherness alive and such an environment makes them learn adaptability andadjustment. The presence of cousin brothers and sisters and other family memberimprove their capacities to share with one another.In joint family every body give his opinionand decision comes to deciding the children future. a joint family contributesgreatly towards raising children if only the members share a good understandingof adjustment and enough space is given to the parents to decide for theirchildren.The family is betterthan nuclear family due to the above advantages.

AdvantageIntoday’s traditional nuclear families, it is common to have dual incomes. Both parentswork to provide financial stabilityØ Supportive in problemsØ Mutual adjustmentØ Festival enjoymentsØ Helps to better study of the childrenØ Understanding during marriagesØ Minimum subsistence of the livingØDisciplines in a familyØSpirit of onenessDisadvantagesØ Misbehavior in the partnersØ Exploitation of memberØ Parents, grandparents and children will miss out on aclose relationshipØ Money value among membersØ Burden in the joint familyØ Inferiority complex  ReferencesØ https://image.slidesharecdn.com/sociology-140613132318-phpapp01/95/sociology-the-family-institution-2-638.jpg?cb=1402665841Ø http://family.jrank.org/pages/1732/Urbanization-Social-Impacts-Urbanization.htmlØ http://www.bitlanders.com/blogs/joint-family-system-in-pakistan/250633Ø https://getrevising.co.uk/grids/nuclear_familyØ https://www.quora.com/What-are-some-examples-of-functionalist-perspective-in-sociologyØ http://open.lib.umn.edu/sociology/chapter/15-2-sociological-perspectives-on-the-family/  Ø https://www.pakistantoday.com.pk/2017/11/15/joint-family-system-in-pakistan-part-1/Ø https://courses.lumenlearning.com/boundless-sociology/chapter/sociological-perspectives-on-gender-stratification/Ø https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Family