14 lines (octave – possibly two quatrains, and a sestet )Iambic pentameterABAB: ShakespeareanABBA: Italian
Six unrhymed stanzas of six lines eachConcludes with three-lined stanza (tercet)Tercet uses all six end words (two to a line)
Five three line stanzas followed by one four line stanzaBased on two repeating lines (1 and 3 of first stanzas)Final stanza uses both lines as the final coupletIambic pentameterRequires cyclical motif or urgent message as subjectRequires lines to deepen in meaning with each verse and flexibility
Poetry that does not have a regular meter or rhyme scheme
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3 line stanza
A poem that may be categorized by the pattern of its lines, meter, rhythm, or stanzas.
The pattern of rhymes in a poem.
Two consecutive lines of poetry that rhyme
Iambic pentameter lines rhymed in pairs.
A three-line stanza rhymed aba, bcb, cdc.
A four-line stanza
A song or poem that tells a story
A brief witty poem, often satirical.
a humorous, rhyming, five-line poem with a specific meter and rhyme scheme
A japanese form of poetry, consisting of three unrhymed lines of five, seven, and five syllables
a poem of serious reflection, typically a lament for the dead.
A poem usually addressed to a particular person, object or event that has stimulated deep and noble feelings in the poet
A work that closely imitates the style or content of another with the specific aim of comic effect and/or ridicule.
A type of open form poetry in which the poet arranges the lines of the poem so as to create a particular shape on the page
the continuation of a sentence without a pause beyond the end of a line, couplet, or stanza.
A line that ends with a natural speech pause, usually marked by punctuation
A natural pause or break in a line of poetry, usually near the middle of the line.
a line that ends with a stressed syllable
Def: An extra unstressed syllable at the end of a line of verse
Poetic foot that has two unstressed syllables.
A common meter in poetry consisting of an unrhymed line with five feet or accents, each foot containing an unaccented syllable and an accented syllable.
Unrhymed poetry written in iambic pentameter
A regular pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables in a line of poetry
the study of poetic meter and the art of versification
The analysis of a poem’s meter.
This is usually done by marking the stressed and unstressed syllables in each line and then based on the pattern of the stresses dividing the line into feet.
A strong, regular, repeated pattern of movement or sound.
Repetition of consonant sounds within words
rhyme in which the vowel sounds are nearly, but not exactly the same (i.
e. the words “stress” and “kiss”); sometimes called half-rhyme, near rhyme, or partial rhyme
latter two syllables of first word rhyme with latter two syllables of second word (ceiling appealing)
a rhyme ending on the final stressed syllable–spent, went
A word at the end of one line rhymes with a word at the end of another line
Rhyme that occurs within a line, rather than at the end
rhyme that appears correct from spelling but does not rhyme because of pronunciation
A harsh, discordant mixture of sounds
pleasant, harmonious sound
Repetition of vowel sounds
It is a stylistic device in which a number of words, having the same first consonant sound, occur close together in a series.
A figure of speech in which natural sounds are imitated in the sounds of words. Simple examples include such words as buzz, hiss, hum, crack, whinny, and murmur. If you note examples of onomatopoeia in an essay passage, note the effect.
Type of irony where it seems that God or fate is manipulating events so as to inspire false hopes, which are inevitably dashed.
Irony that occurs when the meaning of the situation is understood by the audience but not by the characters in the play.
A work that targets human vices and follies or social institutions and conventions for reform or ridicule.
an inconsistency between what is expected or intended and what actually occurs
A figure of speech in which what is said is the opposite of what is meant
Poetry designed to teach an ethical, moral, or religious lesson.
A narrative in which characters and settings stand for abstract ideas or moral qualities
An object carrying symbolic meaning only within the context of a particular work of literature
A figure of speech that combines opposite or contradictory terms in a brief phrase.
A statement or proposition that seems self-contradictory or absurd but in reality expresses a possible truth.
A figure of speech in which a writer or speaker says less than what he or she means; the opposite of exaggeration.
A figure of speech that uses exaggeration to express strong emotion, make a point, or evoke humor
A figure of speech that directly addresses an absent or imaginary person or a personified abstraction, such as liberty or love.
A figure of speech in which an object or animal is given human feelings, thoughts, or attitudes
A figure of speech in which something is referred to by using the name of something that is associated with it
A figure of speech in which a part is used for the whole (as hand for sailor), the whole for a part (as the law for police officer), the specific for the general (as cutthroat for assassin), the general for the specific (as thief for pickpocket), or the material for the thing made from it (as steel for sword).
A play on words
One metaphor that is throughout the work and leads to meaning
a sustained comparison, often referred to as a conceit. The extended metaphor is developed throughout a piece of writing
The comparison is hinted at but not clearly stated.
A comparison using “like” or “as”
figures of speech
Expressions, such as similes, metaphors, and personifications, that make imaginative, rather than literal, comparisons or associations.
A direct or indirect reference to something which is presumably commonly known, such as an event, book, myth, place, or work of art. Allusions can be historical, literary, religious, topical, or mythical.
There are many more possibilities, and a work may simultaneously use multiple layers of allusion.
“Seize the day”; a Latin phrase implying that one must live for the present moment, for tomorrow may be too late.
a poem in which a speaker addresses a silent listener
A writer’s attitude toward his or her subject matter revealed through diction, figurative language, and organization on the sentence and global levels.
The multiple meanings, either intentional or unintentional, of a word, phrase, sentence, or passage.
literal, dictionary meanings of a word
All the meanings, associations, or emotions that a word suggests
local and informal (used of language)
language that is not as lofty or impersonal as formal diction; similar to everyday speech
maintains correct language usage, but is less elevated than formal diction; reflects the speech of most educated people
consists of a dignified, impersonal, and elevated use of language
In the most general sense, the choice of words and figures in poetry.
The term is more often used, however, to refer to that specialized language which is peculiar to poetry in that it employs words and figures not normally found in common speech or prose.
A writer’s or speaker’s choice of words
a poem that tells a story
A long narrative poem telling of a hero’s deeds
Central idea of a work of literature
Words made from the letters of other words (ex. read, dare)