Sonnet Sestina Villanelle

Sonnet
14 lines (octave – possibly two quatrains, and a sestet )
Iambic pentameter
ABAB: Shakespearean
ABBA: Italian

Sestina
Six unrhymed stanzas of six lines each
Concludes with three-lined stanza (tercet)
Tercet uses all six end words (two to a line)

Villanelle
Five three line stanzas followed by one four line stanza
Based on two repeating lines (1 and 3 of first stanzas)
Final stanza uses both lines as the final couplet
Iambic pentameter
Requires cyclical motif or urgent message as subject
Requires lines to deepen in meaning with each verse and flexibility

free verse
Poetry that does not have a regular meter or rhyme scheme

triplet/tercet
3 line stanza

fixed form
A poem that may be categorized by the pattern of its lines, meter, rhythm, or stanzas.

rhyme scheme
The pattern of rhymes in a poem.

couplet
Two consecutive lines of poetry that rhyme

heroic couplet
Iambic pentameter lines rhymed in pairs.

terza rima
A three-line stanza rhymed aba, bcb, cdc.

quatrain
A four-line stanza

ballad
A song or poem that tells a story

epigram
A brief witty poem, often satirical.

limerick
a humorous, rhyming, five-line poem with a specific meter and rhyme scheme

haiku
A japanese form of poetry, consisting of three unrhymed lines of five, seven, and five syllables

elegy
a poem of serious reflection, typically a lament for the dead.

ode
A poem usually addressed to a particular person, object or event that has stimulated deep and noble feelings in the poet

parody
A work that closely imitates the style or content of another with the specific aim of comic effect and/or ridicule.

picture poem
A type of open form poetry in which the poet arranges the lines of the poem so as to create a particular shape on the page

enjambment
the continuation of a sentence without a pause beyond the end of a line, couplet, or stanza.

end-stopped line
A line that ends with a natural speech pause, usually marked by punctuation

caesura
A natural pause or break in a line of poetry, usually near the middle of the line.

masculine ending
a line that ends with a stressed syllable

feminine ending
Def: An extra unstressed syllable at the end of a line of verse

pyrrhic foot
Poetic foot that has two unstressed syllables.

iambic pentameter
A common meter in poetry consisting of an unrhymed line with five feet or accents, each foot containing an unaccented syllable and an accented syllable.

blank verse
Unrhymed poetry written in iambic pentameter

spondee
Stressed, stressed

meter
A regular pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables in a line of poetry

prosody
the study of poetic meter and the art of versification

scansion
The analysis of a poem’s meter. This is usually done by marking the stressed and unstressed syllables in each line and then based on the pattern of the stresses dividing the line into feet.

rhythm
A strong, regular, repeated pattern of movement or sound.

consonance
Repetition of consonant sounds within words

slant rhyme
rhyme in which the vowel sounds are nearly, but not exactly the same (i.e. the words “stress” and “kiss”); sometimes called half-rhyme, near rhyme, or partial rhyme

feminine rhyme
latter two syllables of first word rhyme with latter two syllables of second word (ceiling appealing)

masculine rhyme
a rhyme ending on the final stressed syllable–spent, went

end rhyme
A word at the end of one line rhymes with a word at the end of another line

internal rhyme
Rhyme that occurs within a line, rather than at the end

eye rhyme
rhyme that appears correct from spelling but does not rhyme because of pronunciation

cacophony
A harsh, discordant mixture of sounds

euphony
pleasant, harmonious sound

assonance
Repetition of vowel sounds

alliteration
It is a stylistic device in which a number of words, having the same first consonant sound, occur close together in a series.

onomatopoeia
A figure of speech in which natural sounds are imitated in the sounds of words. Simple examples include such words as buzz, hiss, hum, crack, whinny, and murmur. If you note examples of onomatopoeia in an essay passage, note the effect.

cosmic irony
Type of irony where it seems that God or fate is manipulating events so as to inspire false hopes, which are inevitably dashed.

dramatic irony
Irony that occurs when the meaning of the situation is understood by the audience but not by the characters in the play.

satire
A work that targets human vices and follies or social institutions and conventions for reform or ridicule.

situational irony
an inconsistency between what is expected or intended and what actually occurs

verbal irony
A figure of speech in which what is said is the opposite of what is meant

didactic poetry
Poetry designed to teach an ethical, moral, or religious lesson.

allegory
A narrative in which characters and settings stand for abstract ideas or moral qualities

literary symbol
An object carrying symbolic meaning only within the context of a particular work of literature

oxymoron
A figure of speech that combines opposite or contradictory terms in a brief phrase.

paradox
A statement or proposition that seems self-contradictory or absurd but in reality expresses a possible truth.

understatement
A figure of speech in which a writer or speaker says less than what he or she means; the opposite of exaggeration.

hyperbole
A figure of speech that uses exaggeration to express strong emotion, make a point, or evoke humor

apostrophe
A figure of speech that directly addresses an absent or imaginary person or a personified abstraction, such as liberty or love.

personification
A figure of speech in which an object or animal is given human feelings, thoughts, or attitudes

metonymy
A figure of speech in which something is referred to by using the name of something that is associated with it

synecdoche
A figure of speech in which a part is used for the whole (as hand for sailor), the whole for a part (as the law for police officer), the specific for the general (as cutthroat for assassin), the general for the specific (as thief for pickpocket), or the material for the thing made from it (as steel for sword).

pun
A play on words

controlling metaphor
One metaphor that is throughout the work and leads to meaning

extended metaphor
a sustained comparison, often referred to as a conceit. The extended metaphor is developed throughout a piece of writing

implied metaphor
The comparison is hinted at but not clearly stated.

simile
A comparison using “like” or “as”

figures of speech
Expressions, such as similes, metaphors, and personifications, that make imaginative, rather than literal, comparisons or associations.

allusion
A direct or indirect reference to something which is presumably commonly known, such as an event, book, myth, place, or work of art. Allusions can be historical, literary, religious, topical, or mythical. There are many more possibilities, and a work may simultaneously use multiple layers of allusion.

carpe diem
“Seize the day”; a Latin phrase implying that one must live for the present moment, for tomorrow may be too late.

dramatic monologue
a poem in which a speaker addresses a silent listener

tone
A writer’s attitude toward his or her subject matter revealed through diction, figurative language, and organization on the sentence and global levels.

syntax
Sentence structure

ambiguity
The multiple meanings, either intentional or unintentional, of a word, phrase, sentence, or passage.

denotations
literal, dictionary meanings of a word

connotations
All the meanings, associations, or emotions that a word suggests

colloquial
local and informal (used of language)

informal diction
language that is not as lofty or impersonal as formal diction; similar to everyday speech

middle diction
maintains correct language usage, but is less elevated than formal diction; reflects the speech of most educated people

formal diction
consists of a dignified, impersonal, and elevated use of language

poetic diction
In the most general sense, the choice of words and figures in poetry. The term is more often used, however, to refer to that specialized language which is peculiar to poetry in that it employs words and figures not normally found in common speech or prose.

diction
A writer’s or speaker’s choice of words

narrative poem
a poem that tells a story

epic poem
A long narrative poem telling of a hero’s deeds

theme
Central idea of a work of literature

anagrams
Words made from the letters of other words (ex. read, dare)

doggerel
crude, simplistic verse, often in sing-song rhyme