SUMMARY and CONCLUSION India isthe fastest growing economy with all the states contributing immensely to itsgrowth.
One of the core areas of economic development is bringing forth latenttalent and a strong entrepreneurial spirit. The government of India is turningto small and medium scale industries and entrepreneurs, as a means of economicdevelopment. It is very important for entrepreneur in any area to exploreopportunities, scan the environment, mobilize resources, convert ideas intoviable business proposition and provide new products and services to thesociety by bringing together and combining various factors of production. Theentrepreneurs are engaged in varied form of small and medium scale enterprisesranging from paper to electronics, textile to metal and pipe industry, constructionto food processing, education to handicrafts and many more. Investment in foodprocessing industry can be an advantageous option for an entrepreneur togenerate self employment and earn livelihood as there is an ever-increasingdemand of food.
As according to MoFP, GOI, with India’s food productionlikely to double in the next decade, there is an opportunity for largeinvestments in food and food processing technologies. Thus the present studyhas been undertaken to understand the basic requirements of a small scale foodproduction unit.Foodprocessing enterprises are divided into different segments and it was notpossible for the researcher to study the requirements of all the segments sothere was a need to choose a particular segment of food processing enterprisesfor the conduct of the present study. So a market survey was conducted amongadult consumers (n=100), subjects were chosen randomly from market place ofRajendra Nagar and East Punjabi Bagh as per researcher’s convenience. Toperform the market survey a questionnaire was developed in order to assess themost preferred snack food commonly available in the market that can beundertaken for micro/small scale production. Consumption patternof various snacks by subjects was assessed to know the frequency of consumption of different snacks viz. biscuits, cookies and bread, cakes andmuffins, fresh fried products (such as pakoda and samosa), chips, milk basedsnacks/beverages and sugar and confectionaries including sweets. The questionnairealso consisted of questions emphasizing on factors influencing choice ofsnacks, kind of products in terms of refined flour and multigrain, frequency ofconsumption and type of market.
The resultsof the survey revealed that:· The consumer’s most preferred food itemsfrom all types of snacks were bakery items, especially biscuits, breads andcookies followed by milk and milk products and fried snacks. Majority ofsubjects (50%) said that they consume bread, biscuits and cookies most oftenamong all other given options and 34% subjects also admitted that they consumedbiscuits/bread/cookies on daily basis.· Majority of subjects (50%) stated thatthey consume bread, biscuits and cookies most often among all other givenoptions and 34% subjects also admitted that they consumed biscuits/bread/cookieson daily basis.
· Majorityof the consumers also stated that they purchase snacks form local shops mostfrequently. It can be a good indication for the entrepreneurs in unorganizedsector as a large amount of the supply of products to local shops is viaunorganized or micro/small level production units.· Thusas per the inference drawn from the above market survey as well as the increasing projected growth rate for thebakery industry, bakery establishment was selected to study therequirements.Primarydata to study the requirements of a small scale food production unit wasgathered by personal interaction and discussion with experts in order to understandthe basic requirements for setting up small scale food production unit. Keepinginto mind all the things that are required for the establishment of aproduction unit, a referral document was also prepared in booklet form.
Mainobjective of developing this booklet was to help the beginners who want to opentheir food production establishment. The key indicators that were taken intoaccount to develop a referral material were the form of business, selection ofsuitable location, resources needed such as manpower, physical facilities and equipments,requirement of license and permits, role of government in establishment ofsmall scale enterprises and special schemes and entrepreneurship developmenttraining programmes. The booklet consisted of brief information about variousbasic things such as: · Considerations for location criteria of business,resources required (such as manpower, supply of raw material, physicalfacilities and equipments), finances, loans etc.· List of few suppliers of raw material and equipmentsin Delhi NCR region, training programmes, addresses of institutions under theMSME in Delhi, schemes for entrepreneurs and various loan schemes are alsogiven in the booklet.Case studyof a micro food processing unit was also done by the researcher to betterunderstand the requirements and functioning of a small scale food productionestablishment. Asmall food production unit was chosen for the case study as per unit’s consent.
The production unit was affiliated with SSMI, an NGO. Products produced in theunit were catered to children from “Bal Sahyog” (a social welfare organization). The amount of food items to be produced was demandspecific. A checklist was prepared to study various details of the unit. Fromthe case study it was found that the production area was near the market andtransport facility was also easily available. Water supply in the unit was throughthe MCD, samples of water were periodically checked (e.
g. twice per year) formicrobial contamination. Most of the work was done in day light, for propervenillation there were windows and exaust fans. The unit was equipped with allmost all necessary equipments needed. Staff of the unit were given initial training for raw materialhandling and resourcing, detection of spoilage, simple accounting and dailyrecord keeping, personal hygiene and sanitation, safety measures (fire safety,gas safety), SOP (Standard Operating Procedures) and record keeping ofinventory loads. Training schedule was also formulated. Food safety measureswere also taken into account and six monthlyhealth check-ups (for haemoglobin content, TLC, DLC, ESR, chest x-ray, unit andstool) of the persons employed in the unit was also being conducted. The production unit was also in theprocess of getting registered.
CONCLUSIONAfter the case study of theproduction unit major things that should be taken into consideration forimprovement of the unit can be concluded as- Infrastructure of the unit need to be improved. Floor of thearea needed to be improved as it is not easy to clean with cracks in the floor.An alternate source of power supply (such as generator or inverter) is requiredcase of power cuts.
In order to increase the production more of manpower can beemployed. Ovens of large capacity can be used for production to save time. For growth of the establishment, theproduction unit should contact to the local shops for the sale of products. Packagingof the products need to be improved, it should be labeled properly. Though registrationis voluntary but it facilitates in availing loan and getting other facilitiesfrom the Government and local authorities, so the establishment should go forregistration as soon as possible.Thus from the above study it can beconcluded that bakery is a rapidly growing sector and it can be a rewardingoption of investment for entrepreneurs. In present scenario major problems thatentrepreneurs are facing are lack of infrastructural facilities, lack ofcapital and guidance etc. thus there is a need of providing guidance andinformation about various government and non-government schemes (related toemployment generation, loans and finances, training and motivational programmesetc.
). The referral document designed by the researcher may prove to be helpfulfor people seeking information regarding establishment of bakery set-up.