SummaryBiodiversity sea level. Hanoi also has low hills

SummaryBiodiversity has a significant role in the socio-economic and environmental development of Hanoi. Hanoi is the capital city of Vietnam which has a high potential for biodiversity. However, as the consequences of population growth with increasing level of consumption, environmental pollution with chemical wastes and climate change and the impact of urbanization, Hanoi is now facing many threats to biodiversity. In order to deal with those problems, biodiversity managements requiring strict policies, conservation movements and investment in environmental protection as well as raising people’s awareness should be taken. ContentsINTRODUCTION………………………………………………………………………………………….1BIODIVERSITY STATUS OF HANOI……………………………………………………………………2 ECOSYSTEM DIVERSITY……………………………………………………………………….2 SPECIES DIVERSITY…………………………………………………………………………….3THREATS TO BIODIVERSITY…………………………………………………………………………..5MAINTAINING BIODIVERSITY…………………………………………………………………………5REFERENCES……………………………………………………………………………………………..7Introduction Hanoi is the capital city of Vietnam, which is holding numerous potential of ecosystem unique, biological resources and species richness. Biodiversity plays an important role in socio-economic and natural ecosystem development. As the capital city of a developing country, with the speed of fast urbanization, Hanoi is facing many threats to its biodiversity. This research aims to evaluate biodiversity status and proposes solutions to biology management in the future. Biodiversity status of HanoiBiodiversity is the variability among living organisms from all sources, including terrestrial, marine, and other aquatic ecosystems and the ecological complexes of which they are part; this includes diversity within species, between species, and of ecosystems. (The Convention on Biodiversity def.)I. Ecosystem Diversity1. Terrestrial ecosystem diversityHanoi is located in northern delta region and can be divided into two types of topography: mountainous – low hills and plains. The topography is lower in the direction from North to South and from West to East, by accounting for three quarters, the rest is mountain. Most of the area is in the Red River Delta, with an average height of 5-20m above the sea level. Hanoi also has low hills in the North and West-North of Soc Son District, located on the Southern edge of Tam Dao range with the height of 20m to over 400m, with the peak of a 462m height of Chan Chim Mountain. Base on terrain – landscape and morphology, types of ecosystems can be divided into ecosystems of rocky mountain, mountainous areas and hilly areas. In addition, land use patterns have also created types of agriculture and urban ecosystems. The type of agro-ecosystems and urban ecosystems, are artificial types and have poor organisms composition. Considering the basic nature of typical vegetation of Hanoi, there are lowland forests types (regeneration or planted forests) concentrate mainly in hilly areas of Soc Son District; and grassland types distribute in suburban districts. Particularly, the lowland forests types’ diversity is more remarkable. In forest ecosystem types, the forest has the highest diversity of species. Other types of natural ecosystems have poorer species composition.2. Aquatic ecosystem diversityHanoi climate is the typical climate of Red River Delta region which composes of two seasons: rainy and dry seasons.Hanoi has a dense river network from Red River basin in the South with Duong and Nhue River and Cau River basin in the North with Ca Lo River. Due to the climate characteristic of Hanoi, the rivers in Hanoi have two distinct seasonal flows: flood season and dry season. The flood season usually lasts for five months from June to October, highest water level occurs in August. The dry season often lasts up to seven months from November to May, with the lowest water level in March. River is a very important habitat for aquatic populations. Fauna of the river bed consists of shrimps, crabs, snails and clamps populations. Flood season is a prominent event for many river fish species. Some species of fish practice laying eggs during this season, immediately after or before the season. However, with urban features, Hanoi has drainage rivers such as To Lich River, Kim Nguu River, Set River, which has really low quality of water, results in an inadequate amount of aquatic organisms, mostly organisms preferring anaerobic environment and organic matter organism. Stream is distributed only in mountainous terrains and watersheds. Typical aquatic organisms include aquatic plants (Macrophyta), insect larvae, small snails (Thiariadae, Viviparidae), small fishes and algae. According to many authors (Kottelat, 1996), the ecosystem of stream has high rates of endemic species, some species have even not yet been discovered. Canals systems are mainly concentrated in the suburban areas, have low amount of aquatic organisms and no specific endemic species. Natural lake is a unique feature of Hanoi. Due to topographical conditions, Hanoi has the most lakes in Vietnam. According to the statistic of Hanoi Drainage Company (2004), Hanoi has 110 lakes, natural and artificial ponds. Lake aquatic populations are quite rich and sensitive to environmental changes. Ponds have a smaller size than lakes, which are used for fish farming. It has a rich diversity of plankton and benthic community. Paddy ecosystem is typical for tropical Asia area, which has shallow water and seasonal water. It also has high water temperature, low oxygen content and poor diversity. Reservoir is an artificial type of river. All reservoirs have a common characteristic that in the early stage of flooding, they often undergo an anaerobic period and being contaminated by the decomposition of vegetation submergence. Swamp is a typical water body in Dong Anh District. In swamp ecosystems, submerged plants development is the base for the richness of benthic invertebrate communities and black catfish species.II. Species Diversity1. Species Diversity in Terrestrial Ecosystema. FloraAccording to an official summary statistic of Hanoi, there are 569 species belong to the kingdom fungi (Myxomycota, Oomycota, Chytridiomycota, Zygomycota, Ascomycota, Microsporic fungi, Basidiomycota) and 655 other species, of which 13 species are rare plants being listed in the Vietnam Red Data Book. b. FaunaReptiles and amphibians diversity in Hanoi is quite poor. There are 24 species of reptiles and 9 species of amphibians, of which 9 species are listed in Red Data Book of Vietnam. Comparing to the survey conducted in the whole country, statistics of amphibians and reptiles species, family and order in Hanoi are 7.21%, 36.36%, and 50% respectively.In Hanoi, 103 bird species belong to 23 families and 13 orders are found, of which 5 species are listed in Red Data Book.There are 40 species of mammals in Hanoi (17.39% of total mammal species in Vietnam) belong to 16 families and 6 orders, in which the numbers of small mammals dominate (52.5%).So far 595 species of insects belong to 101 families and 13 orders have been identified in Hanoi, of which 3 species are listed in Red Data Book. 2. Species Diversity in Aquatic EcosystemsPhytoplankton and Phytobenthos is identified as 476 algae species in 6 classes.Aquatic plants (Macrophyta) in Hanoi are 35 species. Invertebrates consist of 76 zooplankton species, 9 shrimp and crab species, 40 species of mollusk; of which only 1 clamp species is listed in Red Book.At the moment, there are 118 fish species of 36 families and 14 orders. Besides, there are also 48 species of exotic ornamental fish in Hanoi, which are originated from Neotropical and Oriental areas.Species Has been specified in Hanoi (A) Has been specified in Vietnam (B) Percentage of A/B (%)Terrestrial ecosystems Plants 655 About 11.400 5,7 Fungi 569 826 68,9Insects 595 7.750 7,7Earthworm 11 – -Reptiles 24 260 9,2Amphibians 9 120 7,5Birds 103 840 12,3Mammals 40 310 12,9Aquatic ecosystem Phytoplankton 476 1.438 33,1Zooplankton 76 About 250 30,4Shrimps, Crabs 9 49 18,4Fishes 118 Above 700 16,8Table: The diversity of species in HanoiThreats to BiodiversityThe accelerating trend of population in Hanoi has been putting pressure on the over-exploitation of natural resources and raising consumption demand. Moreover, it also leads to environmental pollution during production and consumption process. As a matter of the fact that Hanoi is the capital city and a developing economic center of Vietnam, during its development process, the industrialization, urbanization, development of infrastructures such as transport networks, land use conversion occur. Those socio-economic developments with the increase of waste sources will certainly cause an impact on the environment in general and the biodiversity in particular. Apart from climate change, pollution is also a burden as pollution condition in Hanoi is in the state of alert according to the general environmental index; for example AQI (air quality index) in Hanoi is 158. The intake of wastewater with high nutrition content has caused eutrophication in most lakes of Hanoi. Eutrophication has also caused algal bloom of Microcystis spp, which is really toxic for the habitat of many aquatic animals.In addition, pesticides used in agriculture, chemical wastes from factories with untreated hazardous chemicals discharged into the environment have a great negative impact on the life of many organisms and human health.Moreover, they have found exotic species in almost all ecosystems in Hanoi. Hanoi is the traffic hub of the country so that it is considered as the first invasion of alien species. The introduction of alien species also prompts biodiversity loss as it can harm indigenous breeds through the competing for food source and habitats or spreading diseases and pathogens. Last but not least, the management of natural resources and environmental protection policy is still poor, which is also one of the reasons lead to biodiversity loss.Maintaining BiodiversityIn order to maintain biodiversity in Hanoi, the implement of legal policies and development of institutional framework for managing biodiversity in Hanoi are necessary. Nowadays, most countries in the world in general and Vietnam in particular, has applied two measures to conserve and sustainably develop biodiversity: In-situ conservation and Ex-situ conservation. The area of Soc Son hillside should be planed as a biodiversity conservation area as the area contains high potential richness of biodiversity in Hanoi. Actions should be taken to protect the landscape and biodiversity in the lakes of the capital, especially to protect the restoration of Hoan Kiem lake. Diversify the plants in the gardens and parks around lakes, ponds or between high buildings to increase the area of trees in the city, which also contributes the habitats for bird and butterflies populations in Hanoi. Furthermore, conservation measurement investment should be taken in special-use Huong Son forest and Ba Vi National Park.Strictly control the unsustainable exploitation of terrestrial and aquatic resources as well as eliminate the use of destructive methods, and also the appearance of invasive alien organisms. Last but not least, communication work and attempt to raise people’s awareness of biodiversity loss and protection is one of the most important priorities.