Surgical site diseases are normally caused by microscopic organisms that gets in through cuts made amid surgery.
Within the first 30 days after surgery, that is the period when surgical wound infection will always take place. This infection can debilitate the lives of a huge number of patients every year and add to the spread of anti-microbial protection. In a low-and middle salary nations, 11% of patients who experience surgery are contaminated all the while. In Africa, up to 20% of ladies who have a caesarean area gets an injury disease, trading off their own wellbeing and their capacity to look after their children (WHO,2018). Hence, it is important that in the nursing interventions classification is to perform wound care.
Wound care is defined as maintenance of a pressure drainage system at the wound site. Therefore, we as a nurse must be able to know how to recognize, assess and effectively treat routine wounds, following the standard hospital protocols. This review carried a common goal which is to assess the effectiveness of managing wound care after any surgery. Different methodologies were utilized in carrying out these investigations and study. In a study that was conducted by Ilhan, Atmaca, Kaya, Ergin, Karasu & Turfan (2016) it was found that Antibiotic prophylaxis has been found to be the most significant protective factor in reducing the rate of wound infection following cesarean delivery. This case study used a cross-sectional study as its research design.
The study population consisted of 5787 patients with cesarean deliveries that were identified. The method of this study is both written and electronic medically record which are being reviewed using the searches for diagnoses with the terms of “wound infection”. There are separate groups to conduct this study. Patients who received two dosages of 1 gram cephazolin post-surgery and also continued with oral medication of 500mg cephuroxime two times daily for 5 days after discharged from the hospital were group in A group whereas for B group which consists of those patients who had wound infection was not given any form of antibiotics post-surgery and post-discharge. As a result, those women who have developed wound infection following cesarean delivery, the rate was slightly higher in those group who had received the postoperative antibiotic rather than the group which did not receive it.
In a study conducted by Zhou, Liu, Chen, Liu (2015), it was found that vacuum-assisted closure is more effective in the treatment of Surgical Site Infection after ankle surgery compared with standard moist wound care. This research is a Prospective cohort study. They have selected 94 patients with surgical site infection after ankle surgery. It is based on the severity of the wound, the infection was classified as superficial wound infection and deep wound infection. All patients received debridement and irrigation before the dressing is covered. After debridement, the wound will be covered. Vacuum-assisted closure and standard moist wound care were chosen based entirely according to patient wishes.
The results of this study show that the complete wound closure rate in the vacuum-assisted closure group was 90.2% (55 of 61), and 72.7% (24 of 33) in the standard moist wound care group. Vacuum-assisted closure related to a higher complete wound closure rate, and faster complete wound closure time than standard moist wound care group. Therefore, vacuum-assisted closure is found to be more effective in the treatment of surgical site infection after ankle surgery.
The area of similarities between these two articles from Ilhan, Atmaca, Kaya, Ergin, Karasu & Turfan (2016) and the article from Zhou, Liu, Chen, Liu (2015) is that both articles are primary sources with quantitative research designs. Both articles also discussed about the post-surgery wound infection, wound management, and the surgical site. The two articles also applied a common research tool which is the statistical package for social sciences (SPSS). Basically, SPSS is a tool that is used by the researchers to conduct a statistical analysis of the studies.
They also use p-value < 0.05 to find out the statistic results of the research conducted. Ilhan, Atmaca, Kaya, Ergin, Karasu & Turfan (2016) encountered limitations which were lack of data duration of ruptured membranes and number of vaginal examinations. Zhou, Liu, Chen, Liu (2015) then encountered multiple limitations which are the prospective cohort study, independent variable which was chosen entirely based on the patient's wish and also, they found out that there are some potential confounders that may have contributed to the findings. In conclusion, wound care interventions do help us to have a better understanding and knowledge of the different types of wound and treatments. It lets us know about the seriousness of the wound and the consequences if it is not treated properly. Moving forward in regards to the limitations that Ilhan, Atmaca, Kaya, Ergin, Karasu & Turfan (2016) encountered which was the lack of data duration, I suggest that they should set longer a duration time frame while doing the study or research. This is to gain more effective data results for the research conducted.
Same goes for Zhou, Liu, Chen, Liu (2015) limitations that they have encountered and my suggestions are for them to make it mandatory instead of just being based entirely on patient wish and consent. By doing so, it can give a better statistics results based on a longer timeline. From my point of view, this will be a good research platform which can be used for future educations, practices, and references.