Sustainable There is a global drive towards safeguarding

Sustainable Supply chain activities have
been fundamental to economic development and social well-being of countries.
Mckinnon (2010) acknowledges that in the last 5 decades, this has gained
prominence as a major field of academic study and as a key determinant of, for
example, business performance.­­

As living things, our existence and
survival totally depend on the environment we live in. The Global Risk Report (2017)
has suggested an increasing concern about extreme weather conditions and
climate change. From droughts to hurricanes and floods, smog to forest fires,
these events killed thousands of people- and have been directly linked to
climate change. The recent weather and climate deviations points to the effect
of global warming, which results from the long and sustained depletion of the
ozone layer and emission of gases (GHG, SO2, NOx). There
is therefore the need to assess the impact of our actions on the environment.

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There is a global drive towards
safeguarding the environment for future generation. However, in Ghana there
seems to be little or no initiative geared towards achieving the Global
sustainable goals.

Logistics, and specifically transport
representing its most physical component, has accordingly received much
attention in the sustainable drive in recent years, due to the numerous
external effects and the widespread effects on virtually all individuals (van
Lier & Macharis, 2013). The development of sustainable strategies to combat
the consequences of the harmful effects of transport in logistics is what is
referred to as “Green Logistics
Development”. Green logistics
essentially focuses on ways to reduce the environmental effects of logistics.

It is largely studied in literature in the
international context (Confente & Russo, 2009). However very little
research exists to better understand role of green logistics in sustainable
issues in Ghana.

The focus of this study would be to assess
and investigate the state of green
logistics in Ghana, which still constitutes an unexplored field. We would
also like to contribute to knowledge advancement by considering the following;

enhancing awareness and knowledge of
potential and benefits of green logistics policies in the nation and that could
be adopted by other stakeholders within the sub-region;

identifying opportunities that can be
developed into actions in practice; and

shaping strategies for development of
green freight and logistics for policy makers and businesses in the private
sector is an urgent need.


Logistics is the backbone of industry and
commerce. As a discipline, it describes the management and coordination of
activities along supply chains (Fransoo et
al., 2014). The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (2007)
describes Logistics as “the part of supply chain management that plans,
implements, and controls the efficient, effective forward and reverse flow and
storage of goods, services and related information between the point of origin
and the point of consumption, to meet customer’s requirements.”

In the context of increasing
regionalization and globalization in recent years, freight and logistics have
been growing in several areas, (AITC) 2017. It is well known that freight
transport increases the amount of pollution, traffic congestion, gas emissions
and energy consumption (Confente & Russo, 2009). These environmental
problems have also an impact on social issues, such as health, an increase of
diseases, accidents,(Confente & Russo, 2009).

Green logistics refers
mainly to environmental issues related to transportation, material handling and
storage, inventory control, warehousing, packaging, and facility location
allocation decisions (Min & Kim, 2012).

There is also evidence that much of the
environmental footprint of logistics operations is tied to short distances and
distribution. But the volume of emissions can vary greatly, depending on the
mode of transport. Within logistics, transport creates the largest
environmental footprint (Fransoo, 2014). Green
Logistics could therefore provide a framework that could be used to
identify and assess emerging sustainable development procedures to contribute
to the important objective of “Green Growth.”

The growing environmental concern of
citizens and governments and the widespread introduction of the concept of
sustainability have simultaneously placed increasing pressure on public and
private activities to take all effects related to such activities into account,
as elaborated on by Macharis and Van Mierlo (2013).


With environmental problems such as global
warming, ozone depletion, solid waste disposal and air pollution on the
ascendency, business organisations are the source of most of the environmental
problems (Rozar, et al., 2013).

Environmental degradation is a key issue
of concern for governments, societies and business organisations in the world. The
term sustainability has begun to appear in the literature of business
disciplines and companies also are starting to adopt this term (Aref et al., 2005.;
Sarkis, 2002; Hill, 2001; Norman and MacDonald, 2004; Carter, 2008).

The Green Logistics is one of three focus
areas for the World Bank’s Multi-Donor Trust Fund for Sustainable Logistics
(MDTF-SL). The goal of this pillar is to support activities in low income and
developing countries that contribute to the development of transport corridors
and logistics services, while minimizing the carbon footprint and gases
emission associated with the delivery of goods (Fransoo et al., 2014).

Confente & Russo
developed a conceptual research in which they defined green logistics as the sum of three aspects including reverse
logistics, city (urban) logistics and intelligent distribution. Seroka-Stolka’s study in 2014 also expanded the
aspects of green logistics to include corporate environmental strategies
towards logistics and reduction in transport costs.

Green logistics consists of all activities
related to the eco-efficient management of the forward and reverse flows of
products and information between the point of origin and the point of
consumption whose purpose is to meet or exceed customer demand (Mesjasz-Lech,
2011). It is considered as an element of sustainable development that examine
ways of reducing externalities (taking external costs of logistics associated
especially with the environmental issues such as climate change, pollution and
noise into account) and achieving a more sustainable balance between
environmental, economic and social objectives (Seroka-Stolka, 2014).  Schmied (2010) describes the factors affecting
green logistics as; company, customers, politics, and society.

McKinnon, (2010) has
established that “Green Logistics” is
an emerging concern of private operators