Table actions towards setting optimal organizatonal goals achievement.



Table of Contents
Abstract 4
Cultural Influence on
Management Styles. 5
Introduction. 5
The Types of Management
styles. 6
1.     Democratic. 8
2.     Authoritarian. 8
3.     Laissez-Faire. 9
Factors Affecting
Managerial Style. 10
Factors. 10
The cultural factor: 11
Hypothesis. 12
Managerial Styles Assessment 13
The Authoritarian
managerial style: 13
The Democratic managerial
style: 14
The Laissez-Faire
managerial style: 15
Results. 16
Variance across different
countries: 16
Discussion. 18
Conclusion. 19
References. 20




This research investigates the three main types of
management styles with the respect to cultural influence on the organization
effectiveness. This study modelled statistics from across several countries to
evaluate the difference in management leadership approaches and its effectiveness.
The main hypothesis of the research is that a manager’s culture has a crucial
impact on his abilities as a leader and his management style. The methodology
adapted was data collection from several countries with the emphasis on factors
such as power distance, masculinity & femininity, individualism, avoidance,
orientation and indulgence. The results demonstrated the effect of the variance
of the cultural differences on influencing the managerial styles.

Keywords: managerial styles,
cultural influences, data

Cultural Influence on
Management Styles

 The organizational
structure demands a structural hierachy with specific managerial roles that are
resposnible for significant responsibilites tailored towards organization
pivots of confronting either challenges or opportunuites. Aside from their
tittles and their roles, the managers should be focused on analysing and
understnading the diversity of behaviours of all the organizations staff. Since
most managers are in direct charge of their teams, job and duty fullgilment
along with perfromance and conflict resolution is their direct accountability.
Furthermore ensuring and implementing motivational and developing strategies is
a critical responsibility through which the manager should be mindful on
achieving the organizatonal core privinciples and culture. 


The manager must have the ability to conceive and understand
the organizational requirement with regards to the role responsibilities,
functionality and efficiency. The managerial effectiveness is determined
through factors that assess and evaluate the manager’s capacity in overseeing
and evaluating the individual attributes such as performance, absenteeism,
turnover and productivity. In addition to the personal attitudes such as
satisfaction, commitment, stress and involvement. Evaluating and measuring
these behaviors of the team members will allow the managers to be better manage
and develop their teams and hence the effectiveness of the manager can be
measured through the team’s effectivity and performance.

manger’s actions and functionality impact the organization on all kinds of
levels whether it was financial, perfromartory or stakeholder’s relationship.
The challenging preposition of the managerial role define his or her actions
towards setting optimal organizatonal goals achievement. However, if the
manager didn’t conceive and understand the duties well, it may jeopardize the
whole organization.

The various ways of dealing with the subordinates at
the workplace is called as management style. The management style is affected
by the metrics and efficiency of the managers themselves. However,  there is no single management style that can
be applied in all sorts of organizations due to the variance of factors and
attributes such as the organization culture, purpose, size and activities.
Nevertheless, the management style is the most debated and researched aspect of
the organization due to its influence on individual and organizational
perfromance. It has a direct impact from its various elements on organizational
internal and external activities, communication, goal actualization and
perfromance of the overall organization, employees and stakeholders.


The Types of
Management styles

The management
styles are continuously fluctuating since they are different according the
managerial manner of the organization and its employees with the focus on the
varying activities and characteristics of both the organization and its
employees. In order to achieve a successful style of management, the manager
should be adapted to efficient team building and motivation. The types of
management styles vary according to the organizational cultures, for example,
the participative management style is the decision of the manager to share
information with the employees aiming towards decision making indulgence and
yielding from all the staff member. Through this style the employees take
accountability for decisions that are directly affiliated with them and
affecting them. Through this method, the employees will have the ambition and
drive to perform effectively regardless of the manager referring to extrinsic
motivators for the employees to meet goals.

 The leadership styles are determined by the
management style where each is different from the other by the managerial
approach. For instance, the authoritarian style is where leaders or managers
have the absolute complete control on the group and its choices and are sure to
make solo decisions based on their assessments and ideas. Whereas, the
democratic leadership style motivates the group to participate whether in
sharing or expressing ideas but are more tentative about the decision making
process based on participation. On the other hand, the laissez-fair is more of
a delegate process through which managers hand their teams all the tools and
advices necessary for their assessment and allow them to make the decision
making process of the organization


1.      Democratic.

A type of management style in which members of the group
take a more participative role in the decision-making process. Some of the main
characteristics of Democratic Management Style include:

Group members are
encouraged to share ideas and opinions, even though the leader retains the
final say over decisions.

Members of the group feel
more engaged in the process.

Creativity is encouraged
and rewarded.

The main attribute for this leadership style that is mostly adapted
heavily by organization is that it allows the practical solving of complex
situations and conflicts

However, although its advantages are characterized by:

The increase of job satisfaction and

The development of expertise.

Its disadvantages are critical since it’s characterized by:

Slow decision making process and

 Inaccuracy of decision making

2.      Authoritarian.

A management style characterized by
individual control over all decisions and little input from group members. Some
of the primary characteristics of Authoritarian Management Style include:

Little or no input from
group members

Leaders make the decisions

Group leaders dictate all
the work methods and processes

Group members are rarely
trusted with decisions or important tasks

leadership style is most effective in high emergency or stressful time its
practicality erupts from its advantages as

The ability to issue quick and effective

whereas the disadvantages are characterised by

Less ideas input and


3.      Laissez-Faire.

A type of management style in which leaders are hands-off
and allow group members to make the decisions.

Laissez-faire leadership is characterized by:

•Very little guidance from leaders

•Complete freedom for followers to make decisions

•Leaders provide the tools and resources needed

•Group members are expected to solve problems on their own

•Power is handed
over to followers, yet leaders still take responsibility for the groups
decisions and actions

This leadership approach is mostly suitable and effectively
implemented in a work environment of highly educated and skilled staff where
they are able to take decisions based on their own judgment. It is
characterized by advantages such as:

Satisfied employees whom are proud
of their works and

High morale of employees

Whereas on the other hand its advantages are as serious as:

Employees working for their own
benefits and against the organizational goals

Factors Affecting Managerial Style

In order for managers to adopt a successful entrepreneur
leadership style, many factors have to be understood that can influence and
affect the type of management. In order to assess the different leadership
style four factors, have to considered.







One of the most attributes that affect the leadership style of the
managers are their individualistic personality. Aligning the nature of the
manager with his managerial style can be most effective and has been determined
as the most successful. Furthermore, if a manager is more productive and
efficient with following up protocols and rules then that will be the most
adaptable strategy of implementing leadership and managerial styles. 

Belief system:

from the personality, the ethics of the managers and their professionalism
impact their leadership styles. For instance, the manager who has a team player
spirit will encourage and emphasize teamwork and is more likely to adopt the
leadership style. Whereas, a manager who prefer self-actualization and self-management
will encourage the laissez-fair leadership style.



The culture of the company maybe the most influential factor in impacting
the leadership style adopted by managers. For example, the strongly
motivational organizational culture that aids high training would encourage the
adaptation of the laisses faire style. The leader or the manager will adopt the
best style that motivates the realization and actualization of the organization


The diversity employment is increasing in different industries
and organization and hence the variations of genders, races, ethnicity, culture
and age can be easily managed under the democratic managerial style which
encourages the participatory strategy and aids the employees in development

Within the aspect of this study, the
cultural factor will be focused on mostly due to its influence on the
managerial styles.

The cultural factor:

Every culture distinguishes
itself from others by the specific solutions it chooses to certain problems.

A pattern of shared values,
norms, and practices that help distinguish one organization from another 

Culture is the context in
which a company orpeople operates, engages people, change the view of work,
creates greater synergy, makes everyone more successful, produce the current
actions and form an element of future actions

Culture is a collective
programming of the mind which distinguishes the members of one human group from
another… Includes system of values; and values are among the building blocks
of culture…” (Hofstede, 1980).

Culture is the shared
knowledge, beliefs, values, behaviors & ways of thinking


The hypothesis of this study is: A manager’s culture has a
crucial impact on his abilities as a leader and his management style.

For this purpose, Hofstede’s cultural dimensions will be used as the basis of
testing the hypothesis proposed






Managerial Styles Assessment

The Authoritarian managerial style:


The dimensions in Russia seem to point at the preference of:

Power distance:

The indication that power distance scores 93 in Russia signifies that
power is distributed unequally and that the behaviors reflect the authoritarian

Uncertainty avoidance:

The score of 95 signifies that the cultures fears ambiguous situations
and have created institutions and beliefs to avoid such situations and thus
Russia have constituted the most complex bureaucracies in its management styles

Long term Orientation:

81 score indicates how the society and culture of Russia stays connected with
its past to resolve common day conflicts and explains its pragmatic mindset



The Democratic managerial style:


The dimensions of Netherlands indicate:


The high indicator of individualism 80 indicates the strong independency
of the members of the Netherlands society

Long-term orientation:

Indicates the relation between the past and future in conflict and
problem solution


how people in Netherlands control their impulses and decision makings and enjoy
the extent of expressing their ideas and thoughts






The Laissez-Faire managerial style:



The dimensions of India indicate:

Power distance

It explains the unequal power distribution especially in the less
empowered organizational members


Indicated that India is driven by masculinity towards competition and
success. It also addresses the religious diversity in India that empowers the
masculine figures

Long term orientation

links to its past in addressing the future especially in organizations

The variance among the three
managerial styles is evident in the figure below:



Variance across different countries:


Figure one:

Figure Two:




Figure Three:



After evaluation and analysis:

The Authoritarian managerial
styles indicate from Russia are as follows:

High power distance, Masculinity and Short term thinking

The Democratic managerial
style from the Netherlands as follows:

Low power distance, feminine, long term thinking

And the Laisses Faire as

Restraints, collectivism and low power distance

Thus, it was evaluated the cultural
impact based on the analysis of the data accordingly:

It was evaluated that the Authoritarian managerial
style is:

It was evaluated that the Democratic managerial
style is:

It was evaluated that the Laissez-Faire managerial
style is:


The analysis of this study concluded that the hypothesis
suggested that A manager’s culture has a crucial impact on his abilities as a
leader and his management style is true. The evaluation of the variance between
different cultures and different countries have demonstrated that cultural
affiliation has a direct imposition and huge influence on the managerial style.


•Northouse, P. G. (2015). Introduction to
leadership. concepts and practice. Los Angeles: Sage.