Table of contentIntroduction 2Research Questions 3Research Objectives 3Significance 3Literature Review 4Research Methodology 7Discussion and Analysis 7Recommendations and Conclusion 9 INTRODUCTIONDomestic violence, which is also knownas the domestic abuse, battering, familyviolence, is defined as a pattern of abusive behaviors by one partner againstanother in an intimate relationship such as marriage, dating, family, orcohabitation.
There are many forms of domestic violence like physicalaggression or assault (hitting, kicking, biting, shoving, restraining,slapping, throwing objects), or threats thereof; sexual abuse; emotional abuse;controlling or domineering;; stalking; passive/covert abuse (e.g., neglect);and economic deprivation.
1 Violence against womenis a global issue. Women are neglected, trapped within cultural framework,molded by dogmatic thoughts of the patriarchal system. As a result, violenceagainst women is viewed as a normal phenomenon in the light of male attitudes.In Pakistan women is still suffering from, domestic violence, sexual harassment,suicide, forced marriage, trafficking and other psychological problems.Violence against women has become one of the most visible social issues in the21st century. In any male dominated society the domesticviolence against women, especially wives beaten by husbands, is a daily affair.Domestic reports published in Pakistani newspapers show that violence againstwomen has increased at an alarm rate.
The estimate of physical violence againstwomen by husbands or other family members varies between 30% and 50%. Despitethe seriousness of the problem in terms of violation of human rights and publichealth consequences, there is a dearth of knowledge, nature, and the context ofDomestic Violence against Women (DVAW) in the developing countries for variousreasons. Actually, the incidence of domestic violence against women involveshusband, wife, and other family members is perpetuated by the societal context,a family and community-centered approach to alleviate the problem. Domestic violence is a very common formof violence silently suffered by many women in Pakistan. It is a form ofphysical, sexual or psychological abuse of power perpetrated mainly (but notonly) by men against women in a relationship or after separation. The problemwith this form of violence against women is that such cases are seldomreported, often treated as private household matters.
2 InPakistan male consider that they have the right to threaten or be physicallyviolent to their wives as corrective behavior when women are seen as beingdisobedient. According to estimates, 39% of married women aged 15-49 reporthaving experienced physical and/or emotional violence from their spouse. ResearchQuestions1. What are the reasons of domesticviolence in Pakistan especially in rural areas?2. Does the constitution of Pakistanprovide any legal protection for domestic violence against women?3. If yes, then according to the people ofSaggian Kalan, is it sufficient to address the issue of domestic violence orthere is still a room for further legislation?4. Accordingto the people of Saggian Kalan, how the issue of domestic violence can beresolved in rural areas? RESEARCHOBJECTIVES· To figure out if domestic violence existsin Pakistani Society· To find out what constitutes domesticviolence in Pakistan· To find out the factors leading todomestic violence· To find out plausible ways to eradicatedomestic violence SignificanceThis study would enable the researcherto get acquaintance with the factors leading to domestic violence and wouldalso uncover the multifarious aspects of domestic violence leading to variouspsychological responses in individuals. This would not only enable theresearcher to find comprehensive solutions to the instant problem but will alsoprovide a basis for the futuristic plan regarding studies in the samediscipline.
This research will be significant forthe policy makers of Pakistan because it helps them to understand the reasonsof domestic violence in rural areas. They will be able to make such policieswhich protect the women from violence and try to overcome the reasons whichleads towards the domestic violence. It will help him in the legislation forthe protection of women rights. They also come to know about the problems inthe implementation of the previous laws which made for the women protection. This body of knowledge will add to thevast information already existing on the causes of domestic violence in ruralareas. This research will look at the chronic problem of domestic violence froma different paradigm.
The only way this problem can be cured is if the rootcauses of domestic violence are elicited and eradicated, so they can be addressed. This paper help and guide the commoncitizens to aware about their rights especially the women get awareness abouttheir rights. When women get aware out their rights then they will be able tofight against domestic violence on them. LITERATUREREVIEW The major issue is our corrupt mindsets whichhave been developed due to the false teachings in our institutes, madarassasand society. In which most of the typical mindsets teach us that male gender ismore dominant over female gender and the rights of male are more important andmore valuable than female gender. Also they try to quote many references ofhadiths and other examples from the history but they don’t transfer thecomplete information to their listeners and followers.
Due to which these type of heartwrenching incidents take place in our society and we said that “All is Well”.Well it is the bad sign for our country because according to the survey of”Thomson Foundation”, we fall at 3rd number in humiliating the rights of womenin our society. And according to the survey of “Aurat Foundation” there aretotal 5800 of violence and ferocity cases have been registered in 2013 andthese are the cases which are on record and more of this number of registeredcases are off the record in which due to the uncertain law and order in ourcountry most of the women only bear this violence and live their life bybearing this brutality without filing any case. At international level UniversalDeclaration of Human Rights states that “everyone is entitled to all rights andfreedom set forth in declaration, without distinction of any kind, such asrace, color, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national orsocial origin, property, birth or other status” (Article 2).Declaration on the Elimination ofViolence against Women cites that violence against women means as gender-basedviolence resulting in physical, sexual, psychological harm, or suffering towomen, including threats of act, coercion or arbitrary deprivation of liberty,whether occurring in public or private life (Article 1). It also indicates thatStates have an obligation to “exercise due diligence to prevent, investigateand, in accordance with national legislation, punish acts of violence againstwomen, which are perpetrated by the State, or by private persons” (Article4-c). The convention on the elimination of thediscrimination against women defines discrimination against women as adistinction and restriction made on the basis of sex having an effect onrecognition, or exercise by women on the basis of equality between men andwomen, of human right and fundamental freedom in political, economic, social,cultural, civil and so on (Article 1).3 Gender equality was specificallyguaranteed in the Constitution of Pakistan adopted in 1973.
The constitutionstipulates that “there shall be no discrimination on the basis of sexalone.” The Constitution additionally affords the protection of marriage,family, the mother and the child as well as ensuring “full participationof women in all spheres of national life.” However, many judges upheld the”laws of Islam”, often misinterpreted, over the Constitution’sguarantee of non-discrimination and equality under the law. In 2009 a Domestic Violence Protectionbill was proposed by Yasmeen Rehman of the Pakistan People’s Party. It waspassed in the National Assembly but subsequently failed to be passed in thesecond chamber of parliament, the Senate, within the prescribed period of time.The Council of Islamic Ideology objected to the bill, claiming that in itscurrent form it will increase divorces and argued that the bill consideredwomen and children the only victims of domestic violence, ignoring elderly andweak men.
The council claimed that the punishments suggested by the bill werealready enacted by other laws and suggested lack of action on these laws as thereason for increase in domestic violence. After the passage of Eighteenthconstitutional amendment, the matter pertaining to the bill became a provincialissue. It was re-tabled in 2012, but met with a deadlock in parliament becauseof stiff opposition from the religious right. Representatives of Islamicorganizations vowed resistance to the proposed bill, describing it as”anti-Islamic” and an attempt to promote “Western cultural values”in Pakistan. They asked for the bill to be reviewed before being approved bythe parliament.
The bill was passed forIslamabad Capital Territory.4 Thedraft of the Protection of Women against Violence Bill 2015 was drafted by PunjabCM Shahbaz Sharif’s Special Monitoring Unit (Law and Order) and passed by theProvincial Assembly of the Punjab which was signed into a law on 1 March 2016by Malik Muhammad Rafique Rajwana. The law declares physical violence, abusivelanguage, stalking, cybercrimes, sexual violence, psychological and emotionalabuse against women a crime in Punjab, home to 60% of Pakistan’s population.
Underthe women protection bill a toll-free universal access number (UAN) are create toreceive complaints while district protection committees will be established toinvestigate complaints filed by women. Centres will also be set up forreconciliation and resolution of disputes. Every district would have women’sshelters and district-level panels to investigate reports of abuse and mandatesthe use of GPS bracelets to keep track of offenders. Abroad coalition of far-right political parties in Pakistan was created tooppose the bill, including Jamaat-e-Islami Pakistan, Jamiat Ulema-e-PakistanIslami Tehreek and Ahl al-Hadith. Council of Islamic Ideology has also opposedthe bill while Maulana Fazal-ur-Rehman has called the law as part to ‘fulfillthe foreign agenda’.
The bill has been challenged at the Federal Shariat Court.5 RESEARCHMETHODOLOGY It will be applied and qualitative typeof research. In this study descriptive method would be used.
Collection of thematerial and information shall be through primary and secondary sources likejournals, reports, documents, articles and some help would also be taken frominternet. DISCUSSION& ANALYSIS Reasonsof Domestic ViolenceIlliteracy:The main reason of domestic violence inrural areas is the lack of education and unawareness about the rights andduties. The women mostly unaware about their legal rights so they are not ableto resist against domestic violence on them. In one of my interview with victimshe told me that her husband abuse her with slap because it is some flaw infood and sometimes it is a flaw with the clothes etc.
and there is hardly a week goes without violence. In the answer ofthe question that Do you resist violence against you? She said that it is notpossible. He is my Lord, he can do anything he wants.Alcohol:Harmful consumption of alcohol isanother risk factor for causing violence. Lastly living in male dominantsociety, it has become a social norm for men to abuse women physically,psychologically, and verbally and likewise its norm for women to bear the harshbehavior of men.When I interview the wife of drug addictshe told that his husband is a drug addict. When he is short of drugs he asksfor money. When she refuse, he beats her.
He beats her with everything thatcomes to his hand when he drunk. Unemployment:Poverty is the leading cause of theviolence against women. According to literature poverty results in stressfulconditions.
When men become unable to fulfill basic needs, to cope up with thestress he use tool of violence against women. When I interviewed the Farzanashe told me that she work outside home. Her husband does not trust her. Herhusband is unemployed and often doubts my character and beats her whenever heis distressed or depressed. He ties her hands against the bed and does notallow her to move.Hereditary:Role modelling plays a significant roleas it has direct impact on learners. As most families in Pakistani cultures areclose knit where parents act as role models, if the father beats his wife thenhis son would beat his wife as well.
He beats his wife if she ask for going toher mother’s house, it offends him so he beats her. There are other reasons toolike when she ask for new products and which leads to quarrel leading toviolence.Patriarchy:Pakistani society is a patriarchalsociety in which male members who bear the decision-making authority, head thefamilies. Women are usually not included in making decisions and are consideredsocially and economically dependent on men. Women consider themselves insecure,incomplete, ineffective and inefficient without males. Therefore, the maledominance becomes one of the significant predictor of the violence againstwomen in the rural areas of the country. Male is too much dominant that oneinterviewee told that her husband is involved with other women. When she askhim about giving the adulterous life, he abuses her with violence.
Each timewhen she ask him to give up relations with other women he goes to any extent.He pulls her and drags her out of the house. He squeeze her hair. He punchesher. Effectsif Domestic ViolenceImpacton children:Domestic violence have a great impact onchildren.
They may become anxious or depressed and have difficulty sleeping.They have nightmares or flashbacks and they can be easily startled. They maycomplain of physical symptoms such as tummy aches. They may have problems withschool.
They become aggressive and they may have a lowered sense of self-worth.Older children may begin to use alcohol or drugs and they may have an eatingdisorder.Psychologicalimpacts:In particular, physical violence haslong-term, negative psychological impacts on women with stigma against mentalhealth serving as an impediment to treatment. At times, physical violence maycause permanent disfiguration of the body causing physical ailments that leadto a variety of psychological disorders like depression.
Furthermore, women areoften unable to receive treatment for psychological disorders as mental healthwithin the cultural realm of Pakistan is not considered a health matter. Mentalhealth illiteracy leads to treatment of mental health disorders superstitiouslyor not at all.Impacton Health:Domestic violence leads to increasedrisk towards certain health outcomes like major depression, dysthymia, conductdisorder, and drug abuse. Moreover, because women are primary caretakers inPakistan, children also face increased risk for depression and behaviouralproblems. Zakar et al. found in their study that of those interviewed (373women from Pakistani hospitals) including women who had experienced severedomestic violence, 54% reported poor current mental health.
Associated withthis self-reported statistic of women in a poor state of mental health was alsoa high prevalence of mental health disorders with anxiety and depression beingthe most common. RECOMMENDATIONS& CONCLUSION As discuss earlier, it is clear that themain reasons of domestic violence against women take place due to the lack ofproper knowledge and the violation of law. Moreover, the traditional authorityhas been dominating women for ages. However, the following recommendations canbe suggested as proper steps to ensure fair environment of women’s full-participationin the socio-economic activities:· Greater economic opportunities forwomen, ensured through access to credit, awareness increasing activities andskill training, would ensure self-esteem and status of women within households;improve spousal relationship to reduce domestic violence.· Awareness can be brought among communitymembers and family members: Violation against women is an extreme violation ofwomen’s human rights, which is a criminal offense under law.
Also, it hasserious psychological consequences for both women and children. · The primary responsibility to conduct astudy of violence against women should rest on the government and the consciouscitizen per year. · The role of state inaction in theperpetuation of violence connected with the gender-specific nature of domesticviolence being classified as a human rights concern rather than as a domesticcriminal justice concern. · A gender sensitization module should beincorporated in all training program for police, prosecutors, magistrates, andlegal personnel and judiciary. · The roles of courts in case of domesticviolence play a significant role. The courts deal with such cases in arealistic manner to the objects of social legislation, more attitudinal changeson the part of the judges is essential to make gender justice a reality. Domestic violence against is a violationof fundamental human rights.
One of the most effective measurements inidentifying violence is to assess official compliance with internationalstandards relating to human rights’ abuse. In Pakistan, it is a major concern.Although globally women’s rights are human rights, violence against womenremains a pervasive issue. Recognizing domestic violence against women as aviolation of human rights is a significant turning point in the struggle to endviolence all over the globe. The conscious people must undertake effectivesteps to ensure gender equality by promoting humanrights and prevent domestic violence, Government as well as citizens must bemore conscious and sensitive to provide access to immediate means of redress tothe victims of violence.As a democratic countrylike Pakistan, the government ought to maintain the policy of zero tolerance inbringing the perpetrators of domestic violence to justice.
In fact, to make agood nation, domestic violence against women should be not only lessened butalso stopped. Moreover, the conscious community should unite to achieve a worldfree from violence against woman to ensure a healthy, happy, and decent lifefor us all.In conclusion I would say that violenceagainst women is major issue of world and its prevalence in Pakistan is veryhigh.
And its consequences are very drastic so effective strategies should betaken to eradicate the issue from Pakistan and globally as well, becausespending violence free life is right of every woman and we cannot violateanyone’s right. 1 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Domestic_violence2 www.academia.edu3 pakistaniwomen.org4 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Domestic_violence_in_Pakistan#Impact_on_women5 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Women%27s_Protection_Bill