Table of content
Discussion and Analysis
Recommendations and Conclusion 9
Domestic violence, which is also known
as the domestic abuse, battering, family
violence, is defined as a pattern of abusive behaviors by one partner against
another in an intimate relationship such as marriage, dating, family, or
cohabitation. There are many forms of domestic violence like physical
aggression or assault (hitting, kicking, biting, shoving, restraining,
slapping, throwing objects), or threats thereof; sexual abuse; emotional abuse;
controlling or domineering;; stalking; passive/covert abuse (e.g., neglect);
and economic deprivation.1
Violence against women
is a global issue. Women are neglected, trapped within cultural framework,
molded by dogmatic thoughts of the patriarchal system. As a result, violence
against women is viewed as a normal phenomenon in the light of male attitudes.
In Pakistan women is still suffering from, domestic violence, sexual harassment,
suicide, forced marriage, trafficking and other psychological problems.
Violence against women has become one of the most visible social issues in the
In any male dominated society the domestic
violence against women, especially wives beaten by husbands, is a daily affair.
Domestic reports published in Pakistani newspapers show that violence against
women has increased at an alarm rate. The estimate of physical violence against
women by husbands or other family members varies between 30% and 50%. Despite
the seriousness of the problem in terms of violation of human rights and public
health consequences, there is a dearth of knowledge, nature, and the context of
Domestic Violence against Women (DVAW) in the developing countries for various
reasons. Actually, the incidence of domestic violence against women involves
husband, wife, and other family members is perpetuated by the societal context,
a family and community-centered approach to alleviate the problem.
Domestic violence is a very common form
of violence silently suffered by many women in Pakistan. It is a form of
physical, sexual or psychological abuse of power perpetrated mainly (but not
only) by men against women in a relationship or after separation. The problem
with this form of violence against women is that such cases are seldom
reported, often treated as private household matters.2 In
Pakistan male consider that they have the right to threaten or be physically
violent to their wives as corrective behavior when women are seen as being
disobedient. According to estimates, 39% of married women aged 15-49 report
having experienced physical and/or emotional violence from their spouse.
What are the reasons of domestic
violence in Pakistan especially in rural areas?
Does the constitution of Pakistan
provide any legal protection for domestic violence against women?
If yes, then according to the people of
Saggian Kalan, is it sufficient to address the issue of domestic violence or
there is still a room for further legislation?
to the people of Saggian Kalan, how the issue of domestic violence can be
resolved in rural areas?
To figure out if domestic violence exists
in Pakistani Society
To find out what constitutes domestic
violence in Pakistan
To find out the factors leading to
To find out plausible ways to eradicate
This study would enable the researcher
to get acquaintance with the factors leading to domestic violence and would
also uncover the multifarious aspects of domestic violence leading to various
psychological responses in individuals. This would not only enable the
researcher to find comprehensive solutions to the instant problem but will also
provide a basis for the futuristic plan regarding studies in the same
This research will be significant for
the policy makers of Pakistan because it helps them to understand the reasons
of domestic violence in rural areas. They will be able to make such policies
which protect the women from violence and try to overcome the reasons which
leads towards the domestic violence. It will help him in the legislation for
the protection of women rights. They also come to know about the problems in
the implementation of the previous laws which made for the women protection.
This body of knowledge will add to the
vast information already existing on the causes of domestic violence in rural
areas. This research will look at the chronic problem of domestic violence from
a different paradigm. The only way this problem can be cured is if the root
causes of domestic violence are elicited and eradicated, so they can be addressed.
This paper help and guide the common
citizens to aware about their rights especially the women get awareness about
their rights. When women get aware out their rights then they will be able to
fight against domestic violence on them.
The major issue is our corrupt mindsets which
have been developed due to the false teachings in our institutes, madarassas
and society. In which most of the typical mindsets teach us that male gender is
more dominant over female gender and the rights of male are more important and
more valuable than female gender. Also they try to quote many references of
hadiths and other examples from the history but they don’t transfer the
complete information to their listeners and followers.
Due to which these type of heart
wrenching incidents take place in our society and we said that “All is Well”.
Well it is the bad sign for our country because according to the survey of
“Thomson Foundation”, we fall at 3rd number in humiliating the rights of women
in our society. And according to the survey of “Aurat Foundation” there are
total 5800 of violence and ferocity cases have been registered in 2013 and
these are the cases which are on record and more of this number of registered
cases are off the record in which due to the uncertain law and order in our
country most of the women only bear this violence and live their life by
bearing this brutality without filing any case.
At international level Universal
Declaration of Human Rights states that “everyone is entitled to all rights and
freedom set forth in declaration, without distinction of any kind, such as
race, color, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or
social origin, property, birth or other status” (Article 2).
Declaration on the Elimination of
Violence against Women cites that violence against women means as gender-based
violence resulting in physical, sexual, psychological harm, or suffering to
women, including threats of act, coercion or arbitrary deprivation of liberty,
whether occurring in public or private life (Article 1). It also indicates that
States have an obligation to “exercise due diligence to prevent, investigate
and, in accordance with national legislation, punish acts of violence against
women, which are perpetrated by the State, or by private persons” (Article
The convention on the elimination of the
discrimination against women defines discrimination against women as a
distinction and restriction made on the basis of sex having an effect on
recognition, or exercise by women on the basis of equality between men and
women, of human right and fundamental freedom in political, economic, social,
cultural, civil and so on (Article 1).3
Gender equality was specifically
guaranteed in the Constitution of Pakistan adopted in 1973. The constitution
stipulates that “there shall be no discrimination on the basis of sex
alone.” The Constitution additionally affords the protection of marriage,
family, the mother and the child as well as ensuring “full participation
of women in all spheres of national life.” However, many judges upheld the
“laws of Islam”, often misinterpreted, over the Constitution’s
guarantee of non-discrimination and equality under the law.
In 2009 a Domestic Violence Protection
bill was proposed by Yasmeen Rehman of the Pakistan People’s Party. It was
passed in the National Assembly but subsequently failed to be passed in the
second chamber of parliament, the Senate, within the prescribed period of time.
The Council of Islamic Ideology objected to the bill, claiming that in its
current form it will increase divorces and argued that the bill considered
women and children the only victims of domestic violence, ignoring elderly and
weak men. The council claimed that the punishments suggested by the bill were
already enacted by other laws and suggested lack of action on these laws as the
reason for increase in domestic violence. After the passage of Eighteenth
constitutional amendment, the matter pertaining to the bill became a provincial
issue. It was re-tabled in 2012, but met with a deadlock in parliament because
of stiff opposition from the religious right. Representatives of Islamic
organizations vowed resistance to the proposed bill, describing it as
“anti-Islamic” and an attempt to promote “Western cultural values”
in Pakistan. They asked for the bill to be reviewed before being approved by
the parliament. The bill was passed for
Islamabad Capital Territory.4
draft of the Protection of Women against Violence Bill 2015 was drafted by Punjab
CM Shahbaz Sharif’s Special Monitoring Unit (Law and Order) and passed by the
Provincial Assembly of the Punjab which was signed into a law on 1 March 2016
by Malik Muhammad Rafique Rajwana. The law declares physical violence, abusive
language, stalking, cybercrimes, sexual violence, psychological and emotional
abuse against women a crime in Punjab, home to 60% of Pakistan’s population.
the women protection bill a toll-free universal access number (UAN) are create to
receive complaints while district protection committees will be established to
investigate complaints filed by women. Centres will also be set up for
reconciliation and resolution of disputes. Every district would have women’s
shelters and district-level panels to investigate reports of abuse and mandates
the use of GPS bracelets to keep track of offenders. A
broad coalition of far-right political parties in Pakistan was created to
oppose the bill, including Jamaat-e-Islami Pakistan, Jamiat Ulema-e-Pakistan
Islami Tehreek and Ahl al-Hadith. Council of Islamic Ideology has also opposed
the bill while Maulana Fazal-ur-Rehman has called the law as part to ‘fulfill
the foreign agenda’. The bill has been challenged at the Federal Shariat Court.5
It will be applied and qualitative type
of research. In this study descriptive method would be used. Collection of the
material and information shall be through primary and secondary sources like
journals, reports, documents, articles and some help would also be taken from
of Domestic Violence
The main reason of domestic violence in
rural areas is the lack of education and unawareness about the rights and
duties. The women mostly unaware about their legal rights so they are not able
to resist against domestic violence on them. In one of my interview with victim
she told me that her husband abuse her with slap because it is some flaw in
food and sometimes it is a flaw with the clothes etc. and there is hardly a week goes without violence. In the answer of
the question that Do you resist violence against you? She said that it is not
possible. He is my Lord, he can do anything he wants.
Harmful consumption of alcohol is
another risk factor for causing violence. Lastly living in male dominant
society, it has become a social norm for men to abuse women physically,
psychologically, and verbally and likewise its norm for women to bear the harsh
behavior of men.
When I interview the wife of drug addict
she told that his husband is a drug addict. When he is short of drugs he asks
for money. When she refuse, he beats her. He beats her with everything that
comes to his hand when he drunk.
Poverty is the leading cause of the
violence against women. According to literature poverty results in stressful
conditions. When men become unable to fulfill basic needs, to cope up with the
stress he use tool of violence against women. When I interviewed the Farzana
she told me that she work outside home. Her husband does not trust her. Her
husband is unemployed and often doubts my character and beats her whenever he
is distressed or depressed. He ties her hands against the bed and does not
allow her to move.
Role modelling plays a significant role
as it has direct impact on learners. As most families in Pakistani cultures are
close knit where parents act as role models, if the father beats his wife then
his son would beat his wife as well. He beats his wife if she ask for going to
her mother’s house, it offends him so he beats her. There are other reasons too
like when she ask for new products and which leads to quarrel leading to
Pakistani society is a patriarchal
society in which male members who bear the decision-making authority, head the
families. Women are usually not included in making decisions and are considered
socially and economically dependent on men. Women consider themselves insecure,
incomplete, ineffective and inefficient without males. Therefore, the male
dominance becomes one of the significant predictor of the violence against
women in the rural areas of the country. Male is too much dominant that one
interviewee told that her husband is involved with other women. When she ask
him about giving the adulterous life, he abuses her with violence. Each time
when she ask him to give up relations with other women he goes to any extent.
He pulls her and drags her out of the house. He squeeze her hair. He punches
if Domestic Violence
Domestic violence have a great impact on
children. They may become anxious or depressed and have difficulty sleeping.
They have nightmares or flashbacks and they can be easily startled. They may
complain of physical symptoms such as tummy aches. They may have problems with
school. They become aggressive and they may have a lowered sense of self-worth.
Older children may begin to use alcohol or drugs and they may have an eating
In particular, physical violence has
long-term, negative psychological impacts on women with stigma against mental
health serving as an impediment to treatment. At times, physical violence may
cause permanent disfiguration of the body causing physical ailments that lead
to a variety of psychological disorders like depression. Furthermore, women are
often unable to receive treatment for psychological disorders as mental health
within the cultural realm of Pakistan is not considered a health matter. Mental
health illiteracy leads to treatment of mental health disorders superstitiously
or not at all.
Domestic violence leads to increased
risk towards certain health outcomes like major depression, dysthymia, conduct
disorder, and drug abuse. Moreover, because women are primary caretakers in
Pakistan, children also face increased risk for depression and behavioural
problems. Zakar et al. found in their study that of those interviewed (373
women from Pakistani hospitals) including women who had experienced severe
domestic violence, 54% reported poor current mental health. Associated with
this self-reported statistic of women in a poor state of mental health was also
a high prevalence of mental health disorders with anxiety and depression being
the most common.
As discuss earlier, it is clear that the
main reasons of domestic violence against women take place due to the lack of
proper knowledge and the violation of law. Moreover, the traditional authority
has been dominating women for ages. However, the following recommendations can
be suggested as proper steps to ensure fair environment of women’s full-participation
in the socio-economic activities:
Greater economic opportunities for
women, ensured through access to credit, awareness increasing activities and
skill training, would ensure self-esteem and status of women within households;
improve spousal relationship to reduce domestic violence.
Awareness can be brought among community
members and family members: Violation against women is an extreme violation of
women’s human rights, which is a criminal offense under law. Also, it has
serious psychological consequences for both women and children.
The primary responsibility to conduct a
study of violence against women should rest on the government and the conscious
citizen per year.
The role of state inaction in the
perpetuation of violence connected with the gender-specific nature of domestic
violence being classified as a human rights concern rather than as a domestic
criminal justice concern.
A gender sensitization module should be
incorporated in all training program for police, prosecutors, magistrates, and
legal personnel and judiciary.
The roles of courts in case of domestic
violence play a significant role. The courts deal with such cases in a
realistic manner to the objects of social legislation, more attitudinal changes
on the part of the judges is essential to make gender justice a reality.
Domestic violence against is a violation
of fundamental human rights. One of the most effective measurements in
identifying violence is to assess official compliance with international
standards relating to human rights’ abuse. In Pakistan, it is a major concern.
Although globally women’s rights are human rights, violence against women
remains a pervasive issue. Recognizing domestic violence against women as a
violation of human rights is a significant turning point in the struggle to end
violence all over the globe. The conscious people must undertake effective
steps to ensure gender equality by promoting human
rights and prevent domestic violence, Government as well as citizens must be
more conscious and sensitive to provide access to immediate means of redress to
the victims of violence.
As a democratic country
like Pakistan, the government ought to maintain the policy of zero tolerance in
bringing the perpetrators of domestic violence to justice. In fact, to make a
good nation, domestic violence against women should be not only lessened but
also stopped. Moreover, the conscious community should unite to achieve a world
free from violence against woman to ensure a healthy, happy, and decent life
for us all.
In conclusion I would say that violence
against women is major issue of world and its prevalence in Pakistan is very
high. And its consequences are very drastic so effective strategies should be
taken to eradicate the issue from Pakistan and globally as well, because
spending violence free life is right of every woman and we cannot violate