Technology is created through the needs of improving productivity and lifestyle, by applying scientific knowledge leading to innovation. In modern-day society, technology has become a daily requirement in the everyday life of an ordinary human being. The evolution of technology is present, as individuals have expressed their ideas that changed the ways of human life forever. In modern-day society, the use of technology in a household can greatly affect the householder’s lifestyle.
Through using updated technology, people are able to decrease the amount of effort into completing daily tasks, and gain access to almost everything. Although technology is applicable to nearly all human activities, humans are still eager to create new inventions, in their efforts to showcase them to the world. Artificial Intelligence derives from the constitution of these inventions.
It is defined as a component of technology which involves the engineering of intelligence into computer programming, devices, machines and/or the stimulation of computerized human intelligence performed by technology. AI derives from “the goal to replicate human level intelligence in a machine (Brooks, 1991). The concept of AI was established by the works of Allen Newell and Herbert Simon (Allen, 1958). Through the expansion of “machine-independence”, Artificial Intelligence augments the spectrum of social, economic, and scientific discoveries.
But in broadening the capabilities of machines, there are limitations that are met; biological, chemical, and psychological differences. Some scientists believe that Artificial Intelligence can lead to the downfall of society, deriving from possible circumstances of implementing AI in the wrong way. Therefore, society must use Artificial Intelligence accordingly, so that the downfall of society will not occur. “There is nearly universal agreement among modern AI professionals that Artificial Intelligence falls short of human capabilities in some critical sense, even though AI algorithms have beaten humans in many specific domains such as chess”(Bostrom & Yudkowsky,n.d., p.2).
In studying the missing elements that Artificial Intelligence units lack to possess, they must be compared to another cognitive system. The only system in which Artificial Intelligence can be compared to is the human brain, as the concept of Artificial Intelligence is established by the idea to create a synthetic reflection of human intelligence. The brain is composed of neurons, which regulate almost all of the functions of the brain, including the storage and distribution of information, and the generating of thoughts (Rasskin-Gutman, 2005, p.6). The nervous system is the network that connects the brain to the entire human body.
Rasskin-Gutman (2005) claims that the neurons are the most important cells to study when analyzing the cognitive processes (2005, p.5). He also says that the brain needs to possess a means for storing and recovering information that is registered by the sense organs or created by thought, which can only be accomplished by the neurons (2005, p.11).
Axons that are covered by glial cells act as a passageway for ions to be transported from the neurons, to particular parts of the body, in one direction at a time (Rasskin-Gutman, 2005, p.6).Humans are capable of having different reactions, which builds on the knowledge that can be later applied in different situations.
(Brooks, 1991). Based on Hakan Gürvit’s article of social cognition (2014), he states the effect of a stimulus, that can give “a feeling with a positive or negative valance” (2014, p. 300). He says, ” Production of affect (affectus in Latin), which is composed of the components of feeling triggered by a stimulus, and emotion, which is its expression, depends on the individual’s mood, which enables this production with a certain bias” (2014, p. 300). Although humans are generally composed of the same matter, they are able to react positively or negatively when they are under the same physical situation. The structure and system of an AI unit varies.
Arend Hintze, a university professor from Michigan State University, states the four general classes of AI; the reactive, the limited memory, the theory of mind, and the self awareness (Hintze, 2016). Reactive machines are AI units that react based on the scenario they are given. They cannot refer to data from events that the units have “experienced” in the past (Matthews, 2016).