Television as one of theinfluential mass media can give a big effect to its viewer. Television offerssome information and entertainments. Furthermore, many Television channels areraced to get the viewers’ attention in order to get the best rating, theyprovide many programmes that have a unique characteristic. For young viewers,the most interesting TV programme is a Music programme.
Net TV as one of thechannel, has a music programme, namely Breakout that the young viewers saidthat it is the best music programme in Indonesia because it generally appear withsome abroad musicians as the guests. Typically the hosts used in Breakout isthe one who can sing, play some music instruments and the one who can speakEnglish well. Most of the hosts who present in Breakout are Bilingual. Theyoften use Indonesian language and English while presenting the programme. Theyoften do code switch and it was almost during the programme began until itended up. In this study, theresearcher focus on two names of the hosts, Boy William and Sheryl Sherafinabecause those two hosts are the main hosts in that programme.
This Study is focus on thelanguage style and the code switching used by the hosts as well as thelinguistic impact toward the students of Junior High School as the viewers. Ingeneral, this study will elaborate what kinds of code switching used by thehosts of Breakout, what language style they use and what are the linguisticeffect from the hosts’ code switching and language style toward the students ofeight grade in Miksyaful Ulum as their viewers.In the previous studywritten by Laurentius Pradipta Yunanda (2016) under the title “Code Switchingin Indonesian artist Twitter Tweet” showed that artist’s code switch was atrend. This research exposed that the code switching in the twitter tweets ofIndonesian artists were tag-switching, inter-sentential switching, andintra-sentential switching. In addition, the Indonesian artists used the codeswitching combination in their tweets. Another study under thetitle “The Different Language Style and Language Function between Students andTeachers in Updating their Status in Facebook Webpage” written by Nurul Adhalia(2011) showed that the student’s language style was casual meanwhile theteacher was used formal. And both of them used expressive function language intheir sentence. From those two previousresearch it seems that code switching was a trend used by our public figure inIndonesia, but there is no later project investigating the impact of the codeswitching and the language style used by them toward the viewer’s especiallythe viewers on school age.
This study will elaborate what kinds of codeswitching and language style used by the hosts of “Breakout” as well as thelinguistic impact given by them toward the students of MTs. Milsyaful Ulum ateight grade as the viewers.1. Theoretical Framework 2.
2 BilingualismIn the beginning of 19thto the middle of the 20thcentury , a great number of linguists seen bilingualism/ multilingualism as the usage of two or more differentlanguages, and it has a harmful effect on human being’s logical and spiritual growth” (Wei, 2000). Then some influential work from Weinreich (1953),Mackey (1968), Ferguson (1964), Fishman (1968), Gumperz (1964), et al., characters a radical change and creates the stage viewpositively toward bilingulism (Mackey, 2000), (Ferguson, 1977), (Fishman, 2000). Fishman et. al (1971) in Setiawan (2013)stated that bilingualism may not have the same mastery or equality from thefrequency in both language practise. He said that the fluency in bilingualismcan be based on what language is mostly used in practice.
Furthermore, theexpert said that when the language is not often to be used, languageproficiency will be decline (Setiawan, 2013). 2.2 CodeSwitchingWardaugh (2006) tells that peopleuse a code when communicate with other people. In addition, Van Herk (2012)shows that speaker use code switching with their own purpose. Furthermore, codeswitching is seen as the connection within the same speech interchange of textsof speech and belonging to different grammatical system or subsystem (Gumperz). Moreover code switching is defined as the action ofchanging or shifting from one language, dialect or varieties to anotherdepending on the condition (Asher, 1994)However, in this paper, the types of code switchingbased on Poplack will be the base of the analysis. 2.2.
1 Types of Code SwitchingIn this study, theresearcher used types of code switching based on Poplack (1980). Based onPoplack theory there are three kinds of code switching and it was cited onRomaine (1995), those examples are:a. Tagswitching is an activity when the speakers attaches or adds some filler in thesentence. The speakers adds a word or words in a sentence without changing anygrammar rule.b. Inter-sententialcode switching: inter-sentential code switching is an utterance where thespeakers switches his/her codes in a full sentence or between minimally twosentences.c. Intra-sententialcode switching: it happens where the speakers switch the code within asentence.
The switch is in the form of word, sentence, and phrase. 2.3 LanguageStyle:There are some kinds oflanguage style as written by Martin (2000). He classified both spoken and written style into five stages (Martin, 2000), such as:a.
FrozenThis is a formal styleusually used in formal occasion. The form is fixed and based on standardizedlanguage. b. FormalThis is a style stated informal occasion too or in a meeting. Standard speech with a low tempo speech,perfect technical vocabulary, complex and divergence grammatical structure.c. ConsultativeThis is a spontaneous styleand sometime people used unnecessary words.
d. CasualThis is a conversationbetween friends usually used in daily conversation. The language is informaland sometime slang and jargon occur.e. IntimateThis is a style betweenmembers of family without clear articulation, sometimes it is fine to use shortutterance. 2.4 Mediaand the Relation with Language Development Mediahas a great influence on children language improvement. In addition the screenmedia can be the tool to exposes the language to children (Christakis, 2009).
What the expert said may be happened also for teenagers. In the late 1990s, thetrend of watching TV is increased. Nowadays, the TV program is watched by morethan 90% of children almost every day (Christakis, 2009).In addition, a Survey done by Kaiser Family Foundation (2010) stated thatchildren and young adults on 8 to18 years old used about 7:38 hours a day usingentertainment media in television (V. Rideout, 2010).Asa children, they can be greatly influence by their parent, sibling, friends andit is known that media has also a great influential matter (F. J Zimmerman, 2007).
In addition Krcmar et al (2007) and Roseberry et al. (2009) also figured outthat kids and teenager can also learn new vocabulary from video by themselves.Additionally, Zimmerman, Christakis, and Meltzoff (2007a) have an argument thatchildren can learn new vocabulary from some interactive TV programs (F. J Zimmerman, 2007).Furthermore we will use that background to see how the linguistic effects ofthe students after watching “Breakout” music programmed shown on Net TV.3 Method:In this study, theresearcher used the descriptive method in a qualitative research.
Leedy (2005) told that qualitative research emphasison understanding of the social phenomenon in their natural setting (P.D Leedy, 2005). Meanwhile, a discourse analysis was also used in this paper.
Asstated by Gee (2011), a discourse analysis is the study of language usage andit sees how the language endorses social and cultural identity.The participants of thisstudy are the students of eight grade of Junior High School in Mts MiksyafulUlum, Mojokerto, and East Java who actively watch Breakout programme. Therewere 5 students participated in this study. They were chosen because they werethe students who watched “Breakout” routinely.3.1The data collection and data analysis:The method of collectingdata used in this study was observation on the music programme and interview onstudents to know the effect after seeing the language style and code switching bythe hosts.
So the instruments used were observation checklist and interviewnote. The researcher had made an observation checklist to observe the codeswitching and language style use by the host and the researcher interviewed thestudents about what they got or what the effect/ impact after they watched theprogramme. The music programme analyse in this study was the special “Breakout”Program of Coldplay edition. At first, the researcher categorizing the utterancesin the programme into types of code switching and language style checklist,furthermore the researcher analyse the utterance deeper. For getting thelinguistic impact toward the viewers, the researcher conduct interview to theviewers of students in MTs Miksyaful Ulum and followed by gaining conclusionafter finishing the phases of analysing.
4. Findingand DiscussionIn this part, the researcherwill try to answer the research questions about what are the kinds of codeswitching and language style used by the presenters of Breakout Programme as wellas the linguistic effect after watching that programme towards the students asthe viewer. In answering those question the researcher reviewed the literatureframework as the basic.Through the observation andthe discourse analysis, the researcher found that the hosts of “Breakout”Programme namely Boy William and Sheryl Sherafina were frequently usedIndonesian Language and English too. It was clearly that they shifted theirlanguage very often.
Moreover, they shifted from Indonesian language to Englishor vice versa almost in all their utterances. As the expert said, those actionis considered as a code switching. Code switching is the activity or action ofusing changing from one language, dialect or varieties to another depending onthe situation (Asher, 1994). 4.1 CodeSwitchingObviously, the codeswitching used by the presenters were intra-sentential, inter-sentential andtag switching. There were totally 25 utterances consist of the code switchingin the sentences. The details will be explained as follow:4.
1.1 Intra-sententialCode switchingThe intra-sentential codeswitching usage in Breakout was the highest, as shown in appendix 1. From alltotally 25 utterances, the intra-sentential were came out 21 times, or we can saythe intra-sentential code switching used was 84%. We can see it for example of the hostutterance such as “Did you know bahwasomeone in this room right now pernah datang ke konser nya Coldplay secara live”this data can be considered as intra-sentential because intra-sentential codeswitching is focus on language alternation (Indonesian and English) that occurswithin a sentence of a clause border (Romaine, 1995). Boy’s intention is showing to theaudience that someone in his room/programme has ever came to Coldplay liveconcert, in spite of saying in Indonesian or English utterance fully, heshifted the language in his utterance with some English words and someIndonesian words in his sentence.4.1.
2 Inter-Sentential Code SwitchingInter-sentential used found wasnot really significant. We can see it on appendix 1. From 25 utterances,inter-sentential code switching arose for four times or 16%. The utteranceexample was “All right we are back guys.Dan sekarang gue pingin denger curhatan dari coldplayer tentang Coldplay. Whowants to share? Oh iya Santi yang udah dibalas Twitter nya 3 kali”.
Thehost used an English sentence followed by Indonesian language sentence.4.1.3 Tag SwitchingThe tag switching used isonly once from the whole kinds of code switching usage by the hosts, and it occurredon one of the last sentence of the intra-sentential code switching.Furthermore, the tag switching usage is in behind the other sentence of anotherkind of code switching. In the percentage form, the tag switching used was only4% of total code switching used. The example is “Kalau ini no doubt pastitrending topic ya, kan? Worldwide men.
” No Types of Code Switching The Case of Code Switching Percentage 1. Intra-Sentential 21 84% 2. Inter-Sentential 4 16% 3. Tag Switching 1 4% Table4.1 the Result of Code Switching Analysis4.2 Language StyleIn “Breakout”, the hosts areyoung teenagers and almost all the audience who come to the live programme werealso teenagers who have the same intention, music.
The language used by the twohosts were casual language since they used language among friends and they hadto presents the programme relax and joyously. The language they presented was ashifted language from Indonesian and English or vice versa and they did not usethe language formally. They like using “Yo”, “What’s up?”, and they called eachother by “Elu”, “Gue” that means you and I in English. Almost all of thelanguage used by the hosts did not use standardized Indonesian language.4.3 The linguistic Effect of the Hosts toward theStudents as the viewersBased on the interview doneto the five students of eight grader in Mts Miksyaful Ulum who were the fans ofthat music programme, there were some linguistic effects happened to them.
Thelinguistic effect occurred on their imitation of language used based on thehosts’ code switching and language style. The students as the viewers werelikely to apply the hosts’ language shifted in their performance. They used thesentence like “what’s up rek?” and sometimes “elu” and “gue”, and “we areback”, “amazing”, “you know lah”, “did you know bahwa…?”for instance. Thelanguage they used were also switched. They imitate the way of the hosts sayingand use it in their life. The example is like “Last night, saya sudahmengerjakan PR saya at home, mam, so difficult e bu yang nomer two dan four”.The students who were influences by “Breakout”were likely to manipulate theirother friends to use the language and copy what they do.
Furthermore, they makea community between them and their friends who speak like them at school. Theyused code switching in their language in order to be looked as a “cool” andstylist students.4.4 DiscussionAs explained from thefindings we can see there were many examples of the code switching used by thehosts. The code switching were done by the two hosts. The most significant usedof code switching is intra-sentential code switching.
Intra-sentential is codeswitching action where the speakers switch the code within a sentence. Thespeakers switch their sentences in the form of word, sentence, phrase (Poplack, 1980). The numbers of intra-sentential used is 21 times andit showed 84% of the code switching the other two code switching likeinter-sentential code switching is only 16% and tag switching is 4%.The utterance made by thehosts is a kind of casual language style, because they spoke among theirfriends in almost the same age. Furthermore, the linguisticeffects found in the students as the viewers, the students of eight grader inMTs. Miksyaful Ulum, the five participants, were likely to imitate the languageand code switching used by hosts of ” Breakout” and they manipulated theirother friends to use the language and made a community between them and theirfriends who spoke like them. They used code switching in their language inorder to be looked as a “cool” students. Their imitation of language practiseuse by them after watching the programme indicated that they were more likelyto be bilingual.
They used Indonesian language in their daily activities atschool as well as English language. However their mastery of English is stillnot good, but they practiced a code switching as they took from the music programmewhich is the object of this study. This activity was supported by Fishman(1989) in Setiawan (2013) that this kind of using dual language or we usuallycalled bilingualism may form a new linguistic behaviour and situation, and codeswitching is one of the behaviour stated. The students as the viewers could getsome new English vocabularies from “Breakout” and they practised it in theirreal life.5.ConclusionThe teenagers are interestedin music programme especially “Breakout” music programme in NET TV.
The language of presenters used inthat programme were switched from Indonesian language to English or vice versa.In addition, the code switching used were intra-sentential, inter-sententialand tag switching. Intra-sentential code switching was mostly used in theprogramme. It took 84% of the code switching. And the inter-sentential was 16%and tag switching was 4%.
As the hostswere teenagers, the language style they produced was casual language style. In the side of the viewers,the five students of MTs. Miksyaful ulum, the eighth grade were influenced bythe switching code and language style. They imitated and absorbed thevocabularies as well as the way of code switch and the language style.Furthermore, their practise of using code switching in their daily life seemsto make them to be bilingual speakers between Indonesian language and Englishat school, especially when they were talking with the teachers.
However, their duallanguage usage or bilingualism was still high in Indonesian language althoughthe English was also used, so it means that their two language mastery wasstill not balance. Their Indonesian is better than their English although theytried to use them both like what the presenter did.