Termpaper “International environmental issues”In this modern generation, we have someinternational problems that it is difficult to solve without many countries’cooperation.
Especially, I think that environmental issues need all countries’cooperation to solve because if we want to improve world environment, it is notenough that few countries try to improve it, but we need to make effort allover the world. I think that environmental issues are one of the most importantissues because these problems have large influence for all over the world. It isreally dangerous matters for small island states because if they do not solvethese issues, they may sink into the sea in the future. Therefore,environmental issues threaten states’ survival.
However, for other countries,environmental issues are not the most significant problems because they cancontinue to survive.?In addition to this, developing countrieshave less interest in environmental protection than developed countries. Ithink that these gaps between each state make solving environmental issuesdifficult. One of the most serious problems is risingof sea levels. It has a large influence to some countries because they may sinkin the sea in the future. For example, Tuvalu, Maldives, and Kiribati beingthreatened their states’ continuance of existence. These countries arecomparatively small and island countries. Therefore, they have smaller powerunder the anarchic international society.
The rising of sea levels is caused bythe increase of a temperature in the world and it is occurred by environmentalpollution especially emission of gas such as chlorofluorocarbon. We can callthe gas “CFC” for short. CFC was used as parts of refrigerators and airconditioners in the past but people avoid to use it now. Emission of CFC takesplace destruction of the ozone layer. The surface of the earth is covered withthe ozone layer and the ozone layer defends to reach sunlight the earthdirectly. If we lose a part of the ozone layer, ultraviolet rays reach usdirectly so a temperature of the earth increases and the number of people whohave skin cancer also increases.
The rising of a temperature may also bringabout unusual weather such as tornados and typhoons all over the world. Inaddition to this, ices in the arctic ocean constantly dissolve by the rising ofa temperature. If ices in the arctic ocean continue to dissolve, animals likepolar white bears will lose their residence and they may extinct. Therefore,the rising temperature has large effects on a lot of areas. In addition tothis, if we lose all the ozone layer, all lives are killed by ultraviolet rays.Therefore, the ozone layer is really important for all lives.
However, we cansee that there is ozone hole in the sky of the Antarctic. Decreasing of theozone layer usually causes between spring and early summer and some scientistsprove that this decreasing started in the first half of the 1970s. this holehad expanded gradually since the 1970s and we made sure that the size of theozone hole was the biggest in 2003. However, the size of the ozone hole isgradually diminishing now. According to NASA’s 2015 research, we can expectthat the hole will close at the end of 21 century. Why can the size of ozone hole bedecreasing? It is because a lot of countries applied to Montreal protocol in1978.
This protocol regulates to emit the number of substance that damage theozone layer like CFC. This regulation has larger effects than otherenvironmental protocol such as Kyoto protocol. Kyoto protocol regulates to emitthe number of greenhouse gas such as carbon dioxide. This kind of gases is alsoone of the causes of the rising of world temperature. However, if a nationwants to develop its economy, it is sometimes necessary for the nation to emitgreenhouse gas. For example, developed countries like the USA emitted a largenumber of greenhouse gas in the past. Therefore, some developing countries mayfeel that it is not fair to regulate their emission of the number of greenhousegas because only developed countries enjoyed the benefits of emission ofgreenhouse gas.
On the other hand, Montreal protocol is efficient becausepeople have a substitution of CFC and the alternative substance is relativelycheap so not only rich countries but also poor countries could afford to avoidto use CFC. Therefore, it is easy to make cooperation between all countries. When it comes to saying Montreal protocol,I think that all countries can benefit the advantage of regulation of emissionof CFC and there is few disadvantage for all countries. In addition to this,the substitution of CFC is relatively cheap so it is not burdened fordeveloping countries. As a result, it is easy to make cooperation so we can saythat this regime could carry out its role.
On the other hand, I think thatKyoto protocol has less meaning compared with Montreal protocol. This protocolhas difficulties to make cooperation between all countries because developingcountries have more disadvantages compared to developed countries by applyingto Kyoto protocol. It is different from Montreal protocol. It is relativelyeasy for developed countries to decrease the amount of emission of greenhousegas because they have already developed. They already have large wealth. Ithink that these countries have less the need to grow their own economy thandeveloping countries.
The government of developed countries can provide betterinfrastructure and get military power and so on. I think that developedcountries afford to do many things. They could develop their economies becauseof emission of greenhouse gas in the past so I think that it is not fair fordeveloping countries. They have to improve their economies and to make theirpopulation’s life better. They do not afford to decrease the amount of emissionof greenhouse gas. However, I think that it does not mean that developingcountries do not have to diminish emission of greenhouse gas.
If developingcountries are allowed to emit greenhouse gas freely, it is more difficult forall countries to improve the environment. The rising temperature is a problemfor all the world. I think that imposing the same regulationon all countries is not fair so it is necessary to consider each state’seconomic situation. For example, developed countries are imposed relativelystrict regulation and developing countries should be allowed to emit to someextent the number of greenhouse gas.
This is already adopted in Kyoto protocolbut some countries like China and India are not satisfied with contents ofKyoto protocol and they do not apply to Kyoto protocol. In addition to this, theUSA also reject Kyoto protocol. Therefore, I think that this kind of regulationneeds to have little binding force. For example, if one state does not followthe regulation and it emits greenhouse gas greatly, the other states can suethe state to international court.
Too strong binding force is not necessary forus because it has the possibility of invading each state’s sovereignty.However, I think that this anarchic society needs moderate binding force tosolve environmental issues. I think that it is difficult to make cooperationabout decreasing the number of emission of greenhouse gas without moderatebinding force. If we do not have moderate binding force, there are littleincentives to obey the regulation for developing countries that do not face thecrisis of sinking in the sea. If they do not obey the regime, they can get morebenefits than following the regime. I think that each state focus on their ownsurvival so they especially not developed states focus on getting their wealthmore than solving environmental problems for the world. They do not afford toavoid the emission of greenhouse gas at a great cost. In conclusion, I believe that cooperationbetween all states is necessary for international society to resolveenvironmental issues.
All states need to make efforts to improve theenvironment and the regulation of greenhouse gas emission. I think that internationalsociety had better have a moderate binding force to prevent some states fromcheating. However, the quantity of reducing greenhouse gas should be decided inproportion to the level of economic development of each state. In addition tothis, developed states should take the lead in reducing the number ofgreenhouse gas emission. However, it does not mean that developing states donot have to make efforts to protect the environment.
All states have to makeefforts to prevent from getting worse the world environment. Environmental issuesare really important for all of us.