The and are able to adapt, while others

The biodiversity within
an ecosystem is an important aspect of the understanding the value of
ecosystems. Species in rich communities are rare and many endangered species
occur mainly in communities of rich species. After many years, it is still hard
to explain why some plants  are located
in this ecosystem and are able to adapt, while others regulation of
biodiversity is still misunderstood. The role of biodiversity in ecosystem
function is even more obscure and species richness could have important impacts
on other ecosystems properties and functions.

A relationship between
biodiversity and the function of an ecosystem 
can be measured by the condition of the environment and community compositions.  This can be 
shown by observing the plants and animals resources and the decomposing
of  organic material into the plants
soil.  A study called the BEF experiment
studied the relationship between 
biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Sciencetist objective on this
experiment was to try to look for a resolution on how the variety of different
breed of plants were able to come together and create a functioning ecosystem.
Recent studies before the experiment had strong evidence that ecosystems environmental
functions depend on the biodiversity of that ecosystem to perform multiple
functions.” The effects of biodiversity loss are rapidly seen when multiple
functions are monitored over longer periods of time and across multiple
habitats, which reflects the ability of more diverse communities to stabilize
processes across multiple environmental conditions.”( Biodiversity, Pg 3).  The result of this experiment became that
biodiversity  effects in a ecosystems
does increase over time  and that changing
the biodiversity of the ecosystem can have a big impact.  This issue with this experiment however, was
that because of the experiment was done in a controlled environment , the
results seemed to be unrealistic and left researchers with still no clear cut answer
if biodiversity and ecosystem functioning depend upon one another.

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The importance of
biodiversity for ecosystem processes

From the last experiment,
It was clear that research has found that there is an importance of
biodiversity for a functioning ecosystem, but we do not know how much of an
impact it has. Enormous efforts have been put forth to try to  draw valid conclusions on whether plant
diversity influences ecosystem functioning. Rapid loss of species has led  ecologist to investigate importance of
biodiversity for the functioning on an ecosystem. Scientist and Ecologist for
decades have been aware that plant communities may have a big impact on the
rate of which a ecosystem excels. This assumption is made for both rich and
poor plant communities.  This is because
species traits have enabled them to respond to their environment is often
linked to the  trait influence ecosystem
functioning. Scientist are now using experiments in which the diversity of the
ecosystem varies in random planet of the ecosystem to try to get a more
realistic answer to attempt to answer 
how plant biodiversity influences ecosystem functioning? The point of
this experiment was to observe if species were lost in both rich and poor environments
as a cause of ecosystem functioning, 
thus using more of the biodiversity of the species for  ecosystem functioning. ” Despite limitation,
this single experimental approach for studying how biodiversity loss affects
ecosystems has often been advocated and implements at the expense of others
approaches: this limits understanding of how species losses and gains operate
in concert to influence ecosystems”( Ecosystems, Pg 3). This conclude to
sciencetist that yes biodiversity is linked to ecosystem functioning, however
it broad to conclude because these experiments do mimic actions of a real  ecosystems when species are loss or their are
new species are introduced. 

 

The importance of
biodiversity with other ecosystems is still unclear. Primary productivity in
certain ecosystems have shown loss of plants species. Most this evidence is
still not big enough to make assumption true because biodiversity-ecosystem
functioning  patterns remain challenging.
This is because the factors that change in these relations is still poorly
misunderstood.  Another experiment
researchers did was studying a forest to try to get more clarity on this
debated on the linkage of biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. A forest with
26 different ecosystem functions in Europe was measured by the gradient of its
tree species richness. They concluded that ” Despite considerable variation in
species richness effects across the continent, we found a tendency for
stronger  B-EF relations in drier
climates as well as in areas with longer growing seasons and more functionally
divers tree species”(Trees, Par 2). This can be looked at as true because drier
plants have been known to receive less water but more sun. So these types of
plant rely on the underground nutrients they receive through their roots to aid
in there photosynthesis so they become less dependent on water and more on dead
organic material. Effects of dead organic material is a crucial process driving
C and N cycles and ultimately productivity in a ecosystem.

Regulation of plant richness

Relationship between species
richness and nutrients availability is important since nutrient availability is
unintentionally by environmental problems. This type of richness is not only
subjected to just natural plants, but agriculture as well. The agroecosystem
plant diversification has show to enhcane ecological pest regulation. This
thus, increasing the richness of the soil properties and  plant community composition. Plants have two
types of rochness; Low- stratum  and high
stratum. Lower stratum plant species are relative to the abundance of promoted
diversity of organic inputs which affect more of soil composition and
microorganisms. High stratum plants do not have as much richness as low stratum
plant species because their richness has direct connection to the soil where are
high stratum get theirs last because they are on tree tops or the highest level
of vegetation.  The soil community is
complex and diverse with an estimated amount of billions of microorganisms that
make up the entire ecosystem. Researchers have still not found a ” complete”
understanding to this hidden biodiversity underneath the soil, but there has
been more research efforts being made to answer how these organism survive and
live.

Agricultural practices like
drainage, can conserve many of the richness of the ecosystem. It is believed
that soil biodiversity can be used as a key to inquire about how bad plant
communities adapt to the global change. Plant species release soil-borne
chemicals help release all excessive chemicals out of the soils as like a drain.
This then acts as a natural borne recycle for soil communities to keep richness
fresh  and new.  These spatial patterns of soil recycling  reshape the biodiversity of environmental
factors and give regulation the ecosystem functions and structure. However
there is  data that suggest that  this type of soil recycling  varies across biomes. ” Clear
relationships  between latitude and
species richness do not exist below ground 
as they do for many taxa above ground. This lack of coupling suggest
that patterns of aboveground and belowground diversity are governed by
different mechanisms which are also scale dependent”(Belowground pg 2). Also
soil is affected by factors of climate, pH and nutrient content. As a result of
these factors soil abiotic properties and nutrient content are not evenly
distributed in the space of the soil making the below ground compositions very
fragmentary.

 

Highest species richness is
found at intermediate level of biomass production and set by the availability
of the most limiting nutrient. Richness depends upon biomass production, above
ground vegetation, and the identity of limiting nutrients. The concept of
richness in a community immediately gets tied to the opinion that a larger
diversity of species enhance stability. This is not entirely true rather the
richness is defined in how the ecosystem is able to sustain all of the vast
diversity. The effects of environmental impacts on biodiversity and ecosystem
functioning is much stronger than the diversity impacts ecosystem functioning
from different species.  Researchers have
been trying to understand how changes in species number and composition
influence the ecosystem functioning.  So
far the understanding is that there is limited information that can either
support or unsupport the claim that more biodiversity correlates directly to
increasing or decreasing the richness of a ecosystem; and how it functions. We
can use evidence from palaeoecological microfossils which could give more
clarity. Microfossil records from deep sea are particular good evidence for
either side of the argument. These organism are useful as fossil records due to
their high abundance in large spatial and temporal coverage. Because of this
there has been increasing attention being place on the palaeoecological records
to give a guideline on integration across 
the ecology of the ecosystems and how they function.

 

Natural
conservation in agricultural and urban landscapes

Natural
conservation in agricultural landscapes focuses on the examination of nature
conservation efforts on ecosystems. 
These conservation efforts have different effects depending on the
setting.

 

Investigating
what primary factors control species richness in different diversities may help
researchers understand  why many nature
conservation efforts fail.  Conducted
field experiments have tested the hypothesis that regulation of herbivorous
pest in urban landscapes can be enhanced with forbs that provide floral
resources for adult natural enemies. 
This is called for poor regulation of herbivorous pest  because natural prey and outbreaks  by human cropping systems which have cause
ecological imbalances. The difference 
with urban landscapes compared to agricultural landscapes is that they
are more prone to outbreak of herbivorous pest , compared to a lesser
disturbance in urban landscapes that have a 
stable environment for safety of natural enemies.  In this study researchers evaluated potential
for conservation of the pest;  a
bagworm,  and which environment
agricultural or  urban are more affected
in their landscapes by this animal. The bag worm was  then attacked by parasites in both
environments and the observation was where there bagworm would go for shelter
of these pesticide sprayings. This supported the researchers hypothesis that ”
parasitism rates of bagworm were 71% higher i shrubs that  were surrounded by flowering forbs than in
shrubs that like flowers”( Pesticides , part 2). This shows that because of the
landscapes in agricultural setting because they have more vegetation in regards
to shading of pedals on plants, they are more prone receiving animals like this
because they have flowering heads.

 

 

So
there are many aspects that can give readers a bias opinion on whether or not
biodiversity has a direct effect on ecosystem functioning. It has been shown in
this essay that there is research that you can conclude the biodiversity does
have a large impact on the stability of that particular area. This can also
become a problem because, areas with more diversity can make the also not have
any benefit on the ecosystem and make the ecosystem more complexed.