The micro-strip patch antenna was introduced in the beginning of 1950 with limited applications.In last decades there has been a rapid growth in antenna design of integrating GPS into terrestrial wireless communication system. Global navigation Satellite System (GNSS) is the universal term for radio navigation satellite systems. It provide autonomous geo-spatial positioning with global coverage.
The GNSS allows receivers to determine their location using signals transmitted from satellites. Aviation receivers utilizes GPS L5 radio navigation. Micro-strip antenna is most widely used antenna because of itsprint technology, ease of fabrication, conformable to planner and non planner surfaces, light weight. In addition, feed line andimpedance matching network can be integrated.
But it also havesome downsides like narrow bandwidth, low gain and challenges in designing.To overcome with various downsides different designing aspects are used but the main issue is that covering one drawback sometimes results into another drawback.By increasing the height of substrate, we can increase the return loss,bandwidth and gain but at the same time thesurface waves comes in pictures which travel within thesubstrate and they scattered at the bends and surfacediscontinuity, at the truncation of dielectric and ground plane.This extracts the power from total available power, hencedecreases the efficiency. The surface waves can be eliminatedby using the cavity. By the Stacking method we can increasethe Bandwidth.
The matching feed network and antenna mainly depends on the feeding technique used for this. Various feeding techniques have been discussed in literature like micro-strip line Feed, proximity coupled feed, coaxial feed, inset feed, aperture couple feed.In this work we have designed rectangular micro strip antenna using High Frequency Structure Simulator software with frequency 1.176GHZ using coaxial feeding because the feed can be placed at any desired location on thepatch in order to match cable impedance with the antenna input impedance as well as it enhances the gain and provides narrow bandwidth. We tried with different different design configuration of antenna in HFSS and optimized the results according to our use. We have calculated various parameters like radiation pattern(3D), bandwidth, axial ratio, VSWR, reflection coefficient,gain plot etc.
and the results are discussed in the section()