The cardiovascular system refers to all diseases within circulatory system (heart and blood vessels). This includes diseases like: coronary heart disease, stroke, myocardial arrhythmia, and heart failure. The main cause of many of those diseases are the build up of plaque inside the arteries, which can block the blood vessel, this is called atherosclerosis. A blockage within the blood vessel can result in death of cells that were relying on these arteries for their oxygen supply such as a heart attack.Cardiovascular disease is the second leading cause of death in Australia (after Cancer), but coronary heart disease is still the single leading cause of death with cerebrovascular coming in second. Cardiovascular disease is a major cause of death in Australia, with 45,392 deaths in Australia in 2015, killing one Australian every 12 minutes.1 in 5 Australians suffers from a cardiovascular disease and accounts for the second largest burden of disease with cerebrovascular and coronary heart disease within the top five.Cardiovascular disease is the most costly disease in Australia, and remains one of the biggest burden on our economy. There are many risk factors when it come to cardiovascular disease, but the main ones are hypertension (high blood pressure), physical inactivity, obesity and smoking. Many of these risk factors have behavior factors associated with them. In Australia overweight and obesity is increasing with the risk behaviour of health calorie and high fat diets which and can cause cardiovascular disease. inactivity can also contribute towards obesity and with the high rates of inactivity can be linked to cardiovascular disease. Obesity and inactivity also contribute to hypertension, as does smoking. Smoking also contributes to the plaque build up and atherosclerosis, which is the main underlying cause of cardiovascular disease. The trend of smoking is decreasing in Australia while while most other factors are increasing. Other risk factors include family history with cardiovascular disease. Some protective factors for cardiovascular disease include regular physical activity, regular health checks, and eating a balanced diet low in saturated fats.The sociocultural determinants include: family, media, peers, religion and culture. Genetics also plays an important role in many chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease. Growing up in a family that is overweight or obese, lives a sedentary lifestyle or eats high sugar and saturated fats can lead children who living around these lifestyle conditions make similar choice with risk concerning their health. Peers can also influence people to make poor health choice, such as peer pressure to smoke and drink which can lead to increases in cardiovascular disease.The socioeconomic determinants include: employment, income and education. Education can help prevent cardiovascular by knowing the knowledge to help produce lower incidence of cardiovascular disease. Education also enables a choice in employment, people that work in blue collar employment such as trade and labour have higher rates of cardiovascular disease. Also with this form of work there is often linked with other risk lifestyle choices such as higher rates of smoking, drinking and as well as a higher saturated fat diets. Lower income levels can result in disadvantages to healthy resources such as joining a gym, or buying fresh produce.