world’s energy requirement for transportation is met from non-renewable fossil
fuels. In the face of shrinking supplies and rising demand, oil prices are
expected to continue to rise. In addition, growing concerns about human induced
climate change, as evidenced by rising temperatures and environmental
pollution, are further driving the impetus for non-polluting energy sources.
One such source is ethanol from plant biomass/grain and biodiesel from
processing edible and no edible vegetable oils. Oil is running out. In the
short term it will continue to go up in price and in the middle distant future
it will be too expensive to burn. The use of bio fuels will help extend the
life time of our oil supply, but eventually we will need to replace oil –
whatever that replacement is it needs to be sustainable.
Due to Rapidly growth of population demand of
energy is higher in the world. Limited resources are available in the word.
Transportation is very important element now days in the world. Trucks, public
buses trains, planes and submarine are all a daily part of our lives. In the
automobiles, buses, trucks, train commonly used gasoline fuel for
transportation Gasoline is a refined product of petro diesel. Diesel fuel
mainly used for heavy duty vehicles such as buses, trucks, train etc. Gasoline
oil is the most hazardous fuel because it emits higher level of toxic gases in
the atmosphere. Gasoline and diesel exhaust gases create negatively affect of
air quality and damage the environment. These particular gases are not
compatible with the respiratory systems and processes of life on Earth.
Conventional petro diesel is limited resources available. . After sometimes
fossil fuels are depict from the world. Thus alternative fuel is reducing the
dependency of petro diesel fuel.
The main alternative fuel is compressed
natural gas (CNG). Although natural gas is a fossil fuel it is, depict after
sometimes but CNG emits less nitrogen oxide (NOx) and particulate matter (PM)
than gasoline. Natural gas buses have been proven to produce an average of 97%
less particulate matter (PM), 84% less carbon monoxide (CO) and 58% less nitrogen
produces less emission than gasoline, and there is also a highly developed
infrastructure for propane transport, storage and distribution. Ethanol is a renewable, alternative, domestically produced alcohol fuel
made from plant material, such as corn, sugar cane, or grasses. Using ethanol
reduce dependence of gasoline. Ethanol reduces the greenhouse gas emissions. Ethanol (E85), a mixture of 85% ethanol and
15% gasoline is more poplar.
1.3.1Various type of
Ethanol: is a renewable,
alternative, domestically produced alcohol fuel made from plant material, such
as corn, sugar cane, or grasses. Using ethanol reduce dependence of gasoline.
Ethanol reduces the greenhouse gas emissions. E10 and E15 are blends of ethanol
and gasoline. E10 mean 10% of ethanol mixed with diesel for make biodiesel. E
indicates the percentage of ethanol in diesel by volume.
Advantage: (1) Lower emissions of air pollutants
resistant to engine knock.
(3) It has a higher octane
number than gasoline, results good blending properties.
(4) Ethanol is emitted low
level of greenhouse gas emissions
amount of unburned ethanol escapes into the air, forming acetaldehyde molecules
and ultimately smog.
Electricity: is an
alternative fuel that can be used to power electric and hybrid cars.
Powering vehicles with electricity can be economic aspect and can have
significant energy security and emissions benefits. It’s typically cheaper to
fuel a vehicle with electricity than gasoline or diesel. However, the vehicles
are typically more expensive than their gasoline counterparts.
Advantage: Produced almost entirely from domestic resources and typically
more cost-efficient and prices more stable than gasoline.
Drawback: Less environmental
advantages in areas where electricity is produced from fossil fuels.
fuel made from vegetable oils, animal fats, and waste cooking oil alge etc. It
is a biodegradable, non toxic and environmental friendly than petro-diesel. Biodiesel
can be used in its pure biodiesel or blended with petro-diesel. Most
researchers approve blends up to B5. Some approve blends up to B20.
Biofuels are produced
from renewable resources
Emitted non toxic gases
cause less air pollution
Emitted low greenhouse
Biofuels are biodegradable,
of proper biodiesel blend in the engine approved by many automakers
economy and power of biofuel is
is not use in low temperatures due to converting gel
Gas: natural gas like
methane is cleanest burning alternative fuels. It
can be used in the form of compressed natural gas (CNG) or liquefied natural
gas (LNG). Application of CNG and LPG are automobile and cooking. Dedicated natural gas vehicles
are designed to run on natural gas only, while bi-fuel vehicles can also run on gasoline or diesel. Advantage: Bi-fuel vehicles allow users
to the wide-spread availability of gasoline or diesel but use a cleaner, more
economical alternative when natural gas is available. Drawback: Since natural gas is stored in high-pressure fuel tanks;
two separate fueling systems require for bi-fuel vehicles, passenger or cargo
Propane: also called liquefied
petroleum gas or LPG is a byproduct of natural gas processing and crude oil
refining. Already widely used as a fuel for cooking and heating, propane is
also a popular alternative fuel for vehicles. Advantage: Propane produces less emission than gasoline, and there
is also a highly developed infrastructure for propane transport, storage and
distribution. Drawback: Natural gas
production creates methane, a greenhouse gas that is 21 times worse for global
warming than CO2.
Hydrogen: can be mixed with natural gas to create an alternative fuel for vehicles
that use certain types of internal combustion engines. Hydrogen is also used in
fuel-cell vehicles that run on electricity produced by the petrochemical
reaction that occurs when hydrogen and oxygen are combined in the fuel stack. Advantage: No bad emissions. Drawback: Cost and also the lack of
fuelling infrastructure and difficulty of putting it in place.