Theworld’s energy requirement for transportation is met from non-renewable fossilfuels. In the face of shrinking supplies and rising demand, oil prices areexpected to continue to rise. In addition, growing concerns about human inducedclimate change, as evidenced by rising temperatures and environmentalpollution, are further driving the impetus for non-polluting energy sources.One such source is ethanol from plant biomass/grain and biodiesel fromprocessing edible and no edible vegetable oils. Oil is running out. In theshort term it will continue to go up in price and in the middle distant futureit will be too expensive to burn. The use of bio fuels will help extend thelife time of our oil supply, but eventually we will need to replace oil –whatever that replacement is it needs to be sustainable.Due to Rapidly growth of population demand ofenergy is higher in the world.
Limited resources are available in the word.Transportation is very important element now days in the world. Trucks, publicbuses trains, planes and submarine are all a daily part of our lives. In theautomobiles, buses, trucks, train commonly used gasoline fuel fortransportation Gasoline is a refined product of petro diesel. Diesel fuelmainly used for heavy duty vehicles such as buses, trucks, train etc. Gasolineoil is the most hazardous fuel because it emits higher level of toxic gases inthe atmosphere. Gasoline and diesel exhaust gases create negatively affect ofair quality and damage the environment. These particular gases are notcompatible with the respiratory systems and processes of life on Earth.
Conventional petro diesel is limited resources available. . After sometimesfossil fuels are depict from the world. Thus alternative fuel is reducing thedependency of petro diesel fuel.The main alternative fuel is compressednatural gas (CNG). Although natural gas is a fossil fuel it is, depict aftersometimes but CNG emits less nitrogen oxide (NOx) and particulate matter (PM)than gasoline.
Natural gas buses have been proven to produce an average of 97%less particulate matter (PM), 84% less carbon monoxide (CO) and 58% less nitrogenoxide (NOx). Propaneproduces less emission than gasoline, and there is also a highly developedinfrastructure for propane transport, storage and distribution. Ethanol is a renewable, alternative, domestically produced alcohol fuelmade from plant material, such as corn, sugar cane, or grasses. Using ethanolreduce dependence of gasoline. Ethanol reduces the greenhouse gas emissions. Ethanol (E85), a mixture of 85% ethanol and15% gasoline is more poplar.1.
3.1Various type ofalternative fuelEthanol: is a renewable,alternative, domestically produced alcohol fuel made from plant material, suchas corn, sugar cane, or grasses. Using ethanol reduce dependence of gasoline.Ethanol reduces the greenhouse gas emissions. E10 and E15 are blends of ethanoland gasoline. E10 mean 10% of ethanol mixed with diesel for make biodiesel. Eindicates the percentage of ethanol in diesel by volume.
Advantage: (1) Lower emissions of air pollutants (2) Moreresistant to engine knock. (3) It has a higher octanenumber than gasoline, results good blending properties. (4) Ethanol is emitted lowlevel of greenhouse gas emissionsDrawback: Largeamount of unburned ethanol escapes into the air, forming acetaldehyde moleculesand ultimately smog. Electricity: is analternative fuel that can be used to power electric and hybrid cars.Powering vehicles with electricity can be economic aspect and can havesignificant energy security and emissions benefits.
It’s typically cheaper tofuel a vehicle with electricity than gasoline or diesel. However, the vehiclesare typically more expensive than their gasoline counterparts. Advantage: Produced almost entirely from domestic resources and typicallymore cost-efficient and prices more stable than gasoline. Drawback: Less environmentaladvantages in areas where electricity is produced from fossil fuels.Biodiesel: Biodieselfuel made from vegetable oils, animal fats, and waste cooking oil alge etc.
Itis a biodegradable, non toxic and environmental friendly than petro-diesel. Biodieselcan be used in its pure biodiesel or blended with petro-diesel. Mostresearchers approve blends up to B5. Some approve blends up to B20. Advantage: · Biofuels are producedfrom renewable resources· Emitted non toxic gasescause less air pollution· Emitted low greenhousegas · Biofuels are biodegradable,environment friendlyDrawback: Use of proper biodiesel blend in the engine approved by many automakers Fuel economy and power of biofuel is less Currently more costly B100 is not use in low temperatures due to converting gel NaturalGas: natural gas likemethane is cleanest burning alternative fuels. Itcan be used in the form of compressed natural gas (CNG) or liquefied naturalgas (LNG). Application of CNG and LPG are automobile and cooking. Dedicated natural gas vehiclesare designed to run on natural gas only, while bi-fuel vehicles can also run on gasoline or diesel.
Advantage: Bi-fuel vehicles allow usersto the wide-spread availability of gasoline or diesel but use a cleaner, moreeconomical alternative when natural gas is available. Drawback: Since natural gas is stored in high-pressure fuel tanks;two separate fueling systems require for bi-fuel vehicles, passenger or cargospace.Propane: also called liquefiedpetroleum gas or LPG is a byproduct of natural gas processing and crude oilrefining. Already widely used as a fuel for cooking and heating, propane isalso a popular alternative fuel for vehicles.
Advantage: Propane produces less emission than gasoline, and thereis also a highly developed infrastructure for propane transport, storage anddistribution. Drawback: Natural gasproduction creates methane, a greenhouse gas that is 21 times worse for globalwarming than CO2.Hydrogen: can be mixed with natural gas to create an alternative fuel for vehiclesthat use certain types of internal combustion engines. Hydrogen is also used infuel-cell vehicles that run on electricity produced by the petrochemicalreaction that occurs when hydrogen and oxygen are combined in the fuel stack.
Advantage: No bad emissions. Drawback: Cost and also the lack offuelling infrastructure and difficulty of putting it in place.