Theunderstanding of the level of urbanization or its scale in developing countriesis challenged by differences in the definition of urban and in turn, the lackof reliable data. Furthermore, the process of urbanization is far fromhomogenous across regions and swathes of territory that are wholly different interms of economy and political structures. Regarding Britain in 19th century,where less mortality was once the favoured explanation for population growth,it is generally held to be the increase in marriage and birth rate which causedthe explosion.
In contrast and in my personal belief, although high birth ratesmake the natural increase of the population an important source of city growthin developing countries, the movement of people from rural to urban areaswithin the country (internal migration) is the most significant factorcontributed to urban growth.For developed countries like Britain, rapidgrowth of the urban populations is an example of Industrial Revolution in whicheconomic growth happened parallel with industrialization. On the other hand, lessdeveloped countries have experienced sudden expansion in urban population, butwithout demonstrating significant economic progress.* In answer to this disproportionate relationship, Mike Davis outlines Global neoliberalism which prompted thedevelopment of urban areas through foreign investment and capitalisticindustries relying on cities to function as a node in a worldwide capitalistnetwork. Western institutions neglected the rural regions and agriculturalindustries and local governments ended up spending more repaying their debts tothese financial institutions than they were on public services like health andeducation. As a result, previously subsistence agricultural land and state ownedenterprises became privatized.
Small-scale producers lacked land, water, orcapital and general welfare. Subsequently, one could say that thesecircumstances acted as push factors and with combination of pull factors peoplemoved to cities with a prospect of finding a job and better medical andeducation services. **