Theactivities of preparing for a disaster and mitigation techniques are dependentupon the level of government communication and coordination.
Disasters commonlyoverwhelm infrastructure in impacted areas and can often limit a respondingorganizations’ ability to act (Curtis, 2015). Once disasters occur, States mustbe able to provide a responsive effort to their local jurisdictions andeffectively obtain and distribute resources. In order for disaster response tobe useful, partnerships must be developed and maintained among the differentlevels within the government. This includes the private sector and non-governmentalorganizations (Comfort, Ko, and Zagorecki, 2004).Each of these entities must come together and initiate support capabilities.
The National Response Framework is a document that assigns variousresponsibilities and disperses them amongst the public sector, the privatesector, and non-government organizations. It additionally underlines thesignificance of individual readiness. Communities, States, the FederalGovernment, NGOs, and the private sector should grasp their separate duties andobligations, and supplement each other in accomplishing shared objectives.
Eachlegislative level assumes a noticeable part in creating capabilities expectedto react to occurrences. This involves creating plans, conducting disasterappraisals, giving and coordinating assets and abilities, and accumulating thelessons learned (NRF, 2016).CooperationHomelandsecurity activities cannot be accomplished by one single department. Theresponsibilities must be shared between the various agencies, the private sector,and the individual citizens (Steinberger, 2016).
The term cooperation means tooperate or work together. Cooperation infers a short-term voluntaryrelationship where organizations come together, specifically during emergencies,to achieve a common mission and prevent cross-cutting missions (Martin, Nolte,and Vitolo, 2016).CollaborationIncontrast to cooperation, collaboration is frequently depicted as a connectionthat is more of a long-term relationship between associations. “The terms’partnership’, ‘alliance’ and ‘coalition’ to describe intentionallycollaborative relationships between organizations from different sectors thataim at solving joint problems” (Martin et al., 2016, p. 7). Coordinatedeffort during and after disasters is critical to tackle issues since assets arescattered, obligation is unclear, and it is inconceivable for any singleorganization to deal with disaster circumstances.
Forcing excessive control canhurt the joint effort. By sharing data, associations can see each other’srequirements, limitations, and conceive combinations of coordinated effort.Collaboration is the most complex of the C’s (Communication, cooperation, andcoordination) (Martin et al., 2016).
Response& RecoveryLocalLocaljurisdictions are the first line of defense in ensuring that the public is safeduring and after a disaster occurs. Local police agencies, fire services, emergencymedical, emergency management departments, and volunteer agencies will mostoften be both the first to react and respond to a threat or hazard incident andthe ones left behind following the devastation. Everyday incidents are managedmostly by the local governments (NRF, 2016).Localresponse during emergencies is likely the most essential actor in allgovernment roles due to the provision of primary response services. Disasterscan happen to both large industrialized areas and rural communities. Thisexacerbates the importance of being prepared. Establishment of Local EmergencyOperations Centers, prioritizing local resources, and the formation of mutualaid agreements are all functions that require coordination with both public andprivate organizations (NRF, 2016).
MayorThe officeof the Mayor is tasked with overseeing the overall security and health of thepeople of that jurisdiction. The Mayors overall responsibility is to initiateguidance with regards to the city’s resources. A Mayor must be active duringeach phase of the disaster cycle and not simply reacting when one occurs. Localleaders carry the torch of responsibility for implementing emergency managementpreparation and training for effective response.
The Mayor is held responsiblein their leadership to foster community relationships and partnerships with allsectors and volunteer agencies across jurisdictions. The purpose of this is toensure that mutual support exists and assistance can be called upon if needed.There is also the responsibility to create or enhance legal, training andmitigation policies in order to prevent as much chaos as possible ahead oftime. (NRF, 2016).StateThemajority of assistance states receive during and after disasters will come fromthe local resources that are in place. A bevy of government programs exist thatassist communities in preparing. When incidents grow too large for localitiesto handle and current resources are exhausted, the local emergency manager willseek support from the State (NRF, 2016).
GovernorThe Governorof a state likewise has a responsibility to the public to ensure theirwell-being. The Governor of a state has authority to issue executive orders,proclamations, and regulations. He/She also commands the authority to make amendmentsor rescind them.
These actions are enforced as strictly as the law. The overallduties of a Governor in disaster conditions encompass conducting the State’sresources and allocating them as needed. It is this office that can command theState military forces to intervene and assist where needed. If the event is ofsignificant magnitude, Federal resources are available, but must be officiallyrequested. The Governor must file an official declaration of emergency. Theprovisions of the Robert T.
Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency AssistanceAct (Stafford Act) become initiated (NRF, 2016).State Emergency Management AgencyDirectorEachstate has laws enacted that call for the mandatory establishment of stateemergency management agencies. Each state’s emergency management director isresponsible for the readiness of that state to deal with emergencies large inscale. The director works closely with the Governor, Lieutenant Governor, and StateRepresentatives to accurately assess homeland security challenges and goalsrelated to all disasters. The director is also tasked with coordinating theState’s assets and mutual assistance in response to crises (NRF, 2016).
FederalRequestingFederal AssistanceThereare numerous assets and resources that the federal government possesses. When majordisasters occur, federal assistance is bolstered and outlined in the StaffordAct. This document is what gives the authority to disperse aid and is onlyavailable once all state and local resources have exhausted themselves. Under direcircumstances, the Governor has the authority to submit the state’s appeal to thePresident for an emergency disaster declaration (Fugate, 2011).
The PresidentDuringthe disaster declaration state, the President plays a significant role in theprocess. The office of President is now the leader of the government’s responseactivities. The Commander in Chief not only gives the go-ahead but keeps theresources moving quickly and efficiently.
Laws and policies are often enacted,changed, or modified in times of urgent need. There is a limit to thisassistance. 5 million dollars is the amount determined to be the maximum that astate can receive in aid. In the event that the need exceeds that amount, thePresident must petition Congress (NRF, 2016). FEMAAdministratorThisrole in the recovery process could be viewed as one of the most controversial.Over the years, as disasters continue to plague the U.S.
, resources are rarelywhere they need to be as fast as they need to be. Hurricane Katrina, HurricaneHarvey, and the tragedy in Puerto Rico are all examples of howmiscommunication, allocation of resources, and lack of leadership can hamperresponse and recovery activities. FEMA is a main source of blame in eachinstance.FEMA’srole generally does not begin until after a disaster has inflicted communities.
Administrators provide their services to the Department of Homeland Security bymaking recommendations regarding policy and overseeing the grant fundingprograms. FEMA specifically provides a Disaster Relief Fund (DRF). Thisannually recurring fund is utilized as means of providing supplement financingfor state recovery initiatives. Costs can include manpower, reimbursing shelterfacilities, and compensation to all agencies that participate in operations(Fugate, 2011).
ConclusionTheNational Response Framework’s intent is to assist in organizing the manyresources that start at the local level and extend to the highest federallevel. There are numerous entities that play significant roles that were notmentioned here. As long as global warming continues to exist, disasters will occur.There is no all-encompassing solution to prevent all destruction and loss oflife.
Any future success in emergency management will call for planning,cooperation, and integration to be at the forefront of major improvements.Constant advances in technology will certainly lead to a more aware and preparedpublic.