The explained that until the new democratic country

The increase in demand in
raw water shift the demand curve to the right (D to D1), and as a result the
equilibrium price increases from P0 to P1. While the equilibrium quantity
increases from Q0 to Q1.Supply curve remains unchanged, but the quantity
supplied increases as the price of water increases. There is an upward movement
along the supply curve from E to E1


Back in the time of
apartheid in the 1980s and 1990s, water was an owned infrastructure but the
whites. Black people were not given the privilege of using water as they
please, thus the water resources were distributed to the black South Africans
at a very low rate compared to whites. (Anton Earle, Jaqui Goldin &
Phemo Kgomotso, 2005).

According to Anton,
Jaqui and Kgomotso (2005) they explained that until the new democratic country
was established and introduced in SA where Water Service Act of 1997(No.8 of
1997), Section 3(1) they stated a quote from that Act saying, “Everyone has a
right of access to basic water supply and basic sanitation”. It was then where
the population started to grow since there were more black people coming from
the apartheid and thus shifted the demand curve and supply.

According to Water Wise
(2018), they further explained or listed the other factors that caused the
shift in demand in raw water, namely:

DroughtGlobal warmingPopulation, David Makovah (2018), asserts
that the South African population growth in has increased from 35 million from
1994 to 55 million in 2018.Pollution and the destruction of river
catchmentRaw water qualityApartheidPricing, as the price of the good rises, the
quantity demanded of the good falls. (David Makovah, 2018)






Social grants have been recognised
and pointed the one of the infrastructure which waste money for the country
especially the child support grant. One of the critics was picked on the news
where they elaborated that over the past 23 years the number of social grant
has increased from an estimated 4 million in 1994 to 17,443,994 by October
2017. (Louise Ferreria, 2017).

of grant

at 2017 (October)

for older persons




Veteran’s grant


child grant


Child support




relief of distress

in various circumstances.

The above table is
formulated from the information on Louise Ferraria’s (2017) findings.

What Impact does the social grant have to our country?

According to Louise Ferreira
(2017), she explained the following causes:

Grants make people lazy and dependent on the
government, off which true people especially youth they don’t study and look
for better jobs is instead they become pregnant at an early stage knowing that
they will receive gran from the government.She further asserted that there is corruption
also involved where people or parents rather claims grants for children who
don’t live with them.Parents or guardian misuse the grant money.
Buying alcohol instead of buying food or school necessities for the child.


Building economically enabling infrastrure

Building the infrastructure
for the country won’t be only benefiting the person as such but also the
country as the whole. Since Government adopted an infrastructure plan that is
intended to transform the economic landscape of South Africa and in addition
creating a number of jobs especially to the unemployed youth of our country. (Lekgotla,

According to Lekgotla
(2012), he identified that by creating new growth path they are setting 5
million new jobs by 2020, similarly overcoming the structural problems in the
economy, and setting opportunities in certain markets and sectors. He further
emphasised the laying of the basis for higher growth in the country.

Infrastructure development
will shift the demand curve for the employment rate and will push suppliers to
have more space for new workers.



As a parent/guardian there
are many factors that you look at when choosing a school for your child, e.g.

Affordability. Location. Extra-curricular activities.Tertiary acceptance. Religious and cultural and gender
preferences.Scholastic support (Mbatha, 2018)

4.2 Discovery Medical Aid

As a parent again weighing
the importance of private school and Discovery medical aid is very important,
health wise as a parent the following aspects should be considered before

Checking if your children are frequently
hospitalized or with chronic diseases, e.g. Eye problems, BP, Asthma and etc. Geographical area will also play a role as to
how far the public and private hospitals are next to your area.Affordability as well is a crucial part to


It will depend which area
the child hails from as there are very good schools in some townships/suburbs
and therefore there is no reason to take them to private schools. According to
Michelle Gumede (2017) reported that even Angie Motshekga was impressed about
the rural and township 2016 matric results. The Free State is pointed as the
massive rural province yet they achieved the country’s best results with an
overall pass mark of 93.2% in 2016. (Michelle Gumede, 2017).

Many schools from KwaZulu
Natal, Limpopo and Eastern Cape are also suffering, where they are still
without electricity, proper shelter, books, libraries, and teachers.  Being said that, yet we do have distinctions
coming from those areas.

There are affordable medical
aid which a parent can pay less compared to Discovery Medical Aid. If a parent
is frequently taking her kids to hospitals, she will rather opt for hospital
plans from another service provider which she can pay less compared to
Discovery Medical Aid. On the other side saving every month for doctor’s
consultations will also be an option while having a hospital plan which is
cheaper and affordable. (Mbatha, 2018)

According to all the
research and interviews asserted above, as a parent I will personally opt for
medical Aid (affordable e.g. Bonitas, Germs, etc.), depending on my
geographical location; school is the good investment for a child but education
is dependent on self-discipline. If a leaner is in good government school than
there is absolutely no reason to take them to a private school I would rather
choose having a good health and pick my child’s work rate to achieve top marks
i.e. Several A’s which are attainable.

Furthermore choosing between
the two is not easy as this is dependent on individual’s needs and priorities,
some people may survive without both i.e. no private school and no Discovery
medical Aid and still be very successful.



“Monopoly is a market
structure in which there is only one seller of a good or service that has no
close substitutes”. (Philip Mohr & associates,
2017, p. 180).In
South Africa there are a few number of monopolist firms, the three firms would

Transnet, Eskom
and De

Transnet is characterised
as a monopolist firm, as it is the South Africa’s state transport company.
Hence Transnet has control over the price of their services, meaning they are
the price maker and they determine the price level by deciding what quantity of
transport to produce. (Lumen, 2017)

According to Lumen (2017)
they confirm that by looking at the case of Eskom, they distribute electricity for South Africa. It is
insufficient to have more than one provider due to the high cost put up to
power line. Since Eskom set their price they can decide to raise their prices
at any time and most of consumers would still continue to purchase electricity.

According to The Economist
(2004), De Beers is the world’s largest producer of rough stones. De Beers only
sell their stones to invite their invited clients at a no-negotiable price
which happens ten times a year.

“With its near monopoly as a trader of
rough stones, De Beers has been able to maintain and increase the prices of
diamonds by regulating their supply. It has never done much to create jobs or
generate skills (beyond standard mining employment) in diamond-producing countries,
but it delivered big and stable revenues for their governments. Botswana,
Namibia, Tanzania and South Africa are four of Africa’s richest and most stable
countries, in part because of De Beers”. (The Economist, 2004)



5.1.1 Profit-maximising

“We assume that the
monopolist firm aims to maximize profit”. (Philip Mohr &
associates, 2017, p. 182). For example Eskom
is the sole supplier of electricity in SA; the market demand for electricity in
SA is also the demand for Eskom’s product. The market demand slopes downward,
the monopolist can only sell an additional quantity of output if it lowers the price
of its product. (Philip Mohr &
associates, 2017)

“Consider the diagram illustrating monopoly
competition. The key points of this diagram are fivefold.

marginal revenue lies below the demand curve. This occurs because marginal
revenue is the demand, p (q), plus a negative number.Second, the
monopoly quantity equates marginal revenue and marginal cost, but the monopoly
price is higher than the marginal cost.

We see that the monopoly restricts output and
charges a higher price than would prevail under competition”. (Lumen, 2017)

According to Philip Mohr (2017), he confirmed that a, monopolist does
not have a supply curve showing the quantities that will be supplied at
different prices of the product. Since the monopolist is the price maker and
does not move along a supply curve as the price of the product changes.

5.2 Oligopoly

“An Oligopoly is a market dominated by a small number of strategically
interdependent firms.” (David Makovah, 2018, p. 104)

course SA has oligopoly industries in key sectors, to mention just three
amongst them

and ConstructionFinancial

monopolistic status quo has led some into a cartel like behavior  where in
the Building and Construction industry  they club together to determine
and cap pricing which then stifles competition. This would automatically stop
new entrants (small and medium businesses). In some instances they then
subcontract some of their work into small and medium businesses paying them
less which then affect the quality of service delivered.

Finance industry has been alleged to be involved in found fraudulent
activities. I.e. bank charges where 17 South African banks were liable for
payment of an admin penalty of 10% of their annual turnover (BusinessTech, 2017)

Media is being generally perceived to be politically bias and indirectly
pushing certainly political parties’ agendas. And also taking itself as an
active participant in

and directing the countries’ narrative. Research news about media and anc
complains. (Joyisani Maromo, 2017)