The foundational supposition of this study is anchored on Social Role Theory which was developed by Eagly in 1987 in an effort to understand the causes of sex differences and similarities in social behaviour. According to Social Role Theory, men and women behave differently in social situations and take different roles, due to the expectations that society puts upon them. The beliefs, that people hold about the sexes, originate “from observations of the role performances of men and women and thus reflect the sexual division of labour and gender hierarchy in the society.
These beliefs are translated into gender roles which are reflective of actual and real differences in behaviour.The root causes of sex differentiated behaviour are a sexual division of labour and a gender hierarchy (patriarchy). Women and men try to learn the skills of their respective gender to accommodate the roles that are most accepted for them in their society. Traditionally, females learn the skills that will render them competent homemakers, and males prepared in youth to become wage earners and heads of the household.
These accepted personal attributes were described as communal for women and agentic for men. From an anthropological perspective, the division of labour and gender hierarchy has been based on the female’s role in reproduction, the physical strength and size of men, and the demands of socio-economic systems.Females learn in order to be competent adults.
They must show that they are caretakers and nurturing individuals, demonstrating preferred characteristics of social orientation, including affection, devotion to others selflessly, sensitivity, and ability to express themselves emotionally. Young men learn, through stereotypical beliefs, that they must demonstrate task orientation and masculinity by being assertive and controlling, arrogant, independent, self-sufficient, and ambitious. Women learn to be subordinate and men are socialized to be dominant. Thus, Social Role Theory proposes that men are more likely to assume roles of higher status and authority than women. On the other hand, women are more concerned with equity in allocation of rewards and expect fewer and a lower rewards allocation than men. Therefore, women aspiring to the superintendency may face a number of deterrents that men do not encounter. Otherwise, there may possibly be a more gender-equitable distribution of superintendencies. Figure 1: Research ParadigmAs indicated, the conceptual framework depicts the relationships of the variables of the study.
It represents the journey of women who aspire to a superintendency position. The journey is viewed using a theoretical lens of Women’s Ways of Knowing and Leading (WWK/L). The model shows that as women move upward in their pursuit, they encounter barriers, implement successful strategies, and then continue to move forward until they attain the superintendency.
On the right side of the model is an upward arrow representing the continuous growth and development of resilience and perseverance skills that occur during the climb to the superintendency. On the left side is a vertical arrow that suggests women’s paths to the superintendency are hierarchical.The metaphor of a labyrinth portrays the journey of women aspiring to the superintendency. A labyrinth conveys the idea of a complex journey that entails challenges all along the journey yet offers a goal worth striving for in the end. Passage through a labyrinth is not simple or direct, but requires perseverance, awareness of one’s progress, and a careful analysis of the obstacles that lie ahead.
For women who aspire to attain executive leadership positions, routes to this goal do exist but can present both expected and unexpected twists and turns. Because all labyrinths have a viable route to their center, it is understood that goals are, in fact, attainable. But passing through a labyrinth is more demanding than traveling a straight path. Therefore, the labyrinth provides a realistic metaphor for aspiring women and recognition of the challenges that these women face.Statement of the ProblemThis study will determine the labyrinth of the female schools leaders towards superintendency in the Cordillera Administrative Region (CAR). Specifically, this research aims to answer the following problems:1. What are the perceptions of women superintendents about barriers women may encounter in their pursuit of the public school superintendency in the Cordillera Region? 2. What are the perceptions of women superintendents about effective strategies women may use in attaining the public school superintendency in the Cordillera Administrative Region? 3.
What are the perceptions of women superintendents about resilience and perseverance skills women may use to overcome adversity in attaining and sustaining the superintendency? 4. Is there a significant relationship between the barriers encountered, and the resilience and perseverance skills in attaining and sustaining the superintendency position?5. What are the career paths of women superintendents in the Cordillera Region?HypothesisThe following null hypothesis will be drawn and 0.05 will be used as the threshold for statistically significant result.There is no significant relationship between the barriers encountered, and the resilience and perseverance skills in attaining and sustaining the superintendency position.Scope and Delimitation This study is limited to the journey of the female superintendents in Cordillera Administrative Region (CAR). The respondents will be chosen based on their gender and position regardless of their years in service. Significance of the StudyThis study is significant and beneficial to all teachers of Cordillera Administrative Region (CAR) as well as to those outside the region in addressing the gap of knowledge regarding women school superintendents and the barriers they face as well as the successful strategies they employ to overcome them while increasing capacity for resilience and perseverance.
An exposition of these benefits is presented.Women Educators aspiring to the Superintendency Position. The shared experiences of current women school superintendents in Cordillera Administrative Region will provide information regarding the barriers that exist, means to overcome those barriers, and specific strategies for building resilience and perseverance skills for successful attainment of the position. Universities and Professional Organizations. Knowing the skills and strategies necessary for success for women aspiring to the superintendency is beneficial to the Universities and Professional Organizations who are preparing women to assume the role of the highest position in education. Hiring Committee. This study may also serve as a resource guide for those in positions of hiring superintendents to ensure a conscious awareness of perceived discriminatory practices.
This awareness may lead to equal access for women and provide them with a greater opportunity for acquiring the executive leadership position.Future Researchers. This study may be beneficial to other researchers who might be interested in replicating this study in their organizational setting. The methodology and its outcome provide other researchers with guidelines in conducting investigations which deal with gender-inclusive perspective. Definition of TermsChapter 2Review of Related Literature and StudiesSynthesisChapter 3MethodologyResearch DesignA descriptive research design is selected for this study. The design selection is based on the research questions and the conceptual framework which provided the premise for this research. Surveys and interviews will be used to collect information from the participants. In addition, resumes or curriculum vitae will be requested in order to collect data regarding the career pathways that led to the superintendency.
Research LocaleThe study will be conducted in Cordillera Administrative Region, (CAR) Philippines. DepEd – CAR has 8 divisions situated in the different provinces and cities within the region.Population and Sampling TechniquesThe researcher will utilize the purposive sampling method in choosing the respondents of this study. There are 8 divisions in DepEd – Cordillera Administrative Region. Each of them has a Schools Division Superintendent. However, there are only 3 respondents. They are selected based on the following criteria: (1) they are currently employed as superintendent in DepEd – CAR, (2) they are female, and (3) they are willing to participate in the study.Research Instrument1.
Survey Questionnaire and its DevelopmentA revision of the survey instrument Questionnaire on Perceptions of Barriers and Strategies Impacting on Women Securing the Superintendency, (Dulac, 1992), will be used with modifications to collect data for this study. The questionnaire consists of items to identify perceived barriers and effective strategies, however, items on resilience and perseverance will be included as part of its modification. The survey also includes a section to elicit demographic as well as biographic data. Finally, open-ended questions will be incorporated into the survey instrument to enhance questionnaire responses.The original survey instrument was developed by Dulac (1992) in her study.
It consisted of 18 demographic and biographic questions that addressed the personal and professional characteristics of women in the superintendency. The following two sections contained 30 statements each utilizing a Likert scale to determine perceptions of barriers and strategies. In addition to the established sections on demographics, barriers, and strategies in the survey instrument, the current researcher will add 15 items associated with resilience skills as identified in the research by Patterson et al.
(2008). Also, six more items associated with The Grit Scale by Duckworth et al. (2007) will be included to collect data on perseverance skills.
These 21 items will be added to customize the revised instrument to meet study conditions. The modified questionnaire will be piloted. Results and feedback regarding the items will be used to develop the final version of the survey instrument.
2. Interview Protocol In order to enter the world of woman superintendency and to better understand her experiences, the researcher will incorporate follow-up interviews. This study will use the interview guide approach where the questions are framed around the results of the survey findings in order to elicit opinions, views, and experiences of the women superintendent participants. The purpose of an interview guide is to ensure that the same questions will be asked to each participant.
This approach is an appropriate choice since it’s the researcher’s desire to probe deeper into the specific responses elicited by the survey in order to gain a deeper understanding of the survey findings. Also by linking the questions on the interview guide back to the results of the survey, triangulation of data could be achieved to enhance the validity of the findings. 3.
Resumes and VitaeResumes and vitae from the women superintendent participants will be also used as a data source. Data regarding career pathways will be collected from the documents noting number and variety of positions held, length of time each position was held, and the entry position into the superintendency.Data Gathering ProcedureAn email will be sent to each woman superintendent in the sample introducing the study in a cover letter. Included to the email will be the letter noted by the DepEd – CAR OIC- Regional Director May B. Eclar, Ph.D., CESO V, the link to the online survey instrument, and the request for participants to submit their resumes or vitae as attachments to a reply email.
After participants read the email and the letter, they will be directed to click on the link to begin the survey. The form for the survey will be created using Google Documents. Each survey item will be created as a ?mandatory response so participants would be less likely to accidentally skip an item before submitting their completed survey. Once participants click on the survey link in the introductory email, they will be taken to the survey form.
As participants enter their responses digitally into the form, the data will be automatically entered into a Google Documents’ secured database. The survey data will be collected during a 10-day window. Five days into the window, participants will be sent a reminder email requesting completion of the survey and submission of their resumes or vitae.
At the end of the 10-day data collection period, the survey will be closed and the data will be extracted into a secured Excel spreadsheet where they will be stored on the researcher’s personal computer. The online data stored in the Google Document will then be deleted, and electronic access to the survey will be turned off. When the Google Document database will be downloaded, the data will be saved in an Excel spreadsheet. By saving the data in spreadsheet format, they will be immediately ready for descriptive analysis. Contact information regarding volunteers for the follow-up interviews will be extracted and tagged for use in the interview sample selection.Interview ProtocolAt the close of the survey, the researcher chooses the interview sample based on maximum variation sampling as described in the selection of the interview sample process. She will contact those chosen for interviews by email to set up times for the interviews. The follow-up interviews will be conducted by phone at prearranged appointments chosen by the participants at times convenient for them.
Participants will be made aware that the interviews would be recorded and transcribed. They will also be reminded of their rights and responsibilities to review and validate the transcripts. The research questions, as well as the findings from the survey, guide the formation of the seven open-ended questions in the interview guide. Interviews will take approximately 30 minutes to complete. Once the interviews will be transcribed and verified by the participants, data will be extracted and arranged into a matrix for coding and preliminary analysis.
Processing Interview DataAfter conducting the interviews, the researcher will transcribe them verbatim to immerse herself in the data. To increase this possibility, each transcript will be checked for accuracy by listening to the tapes while reading the transcripts.Next, the transcripts will be returned to the participants to ensure accuracy and to solicit verification. The participants will return their comments, suggestions for edits, and verifications that the information obtained via the interview protocol is indeed accurate. Interview tapes will be identified with pseudonyms and case numbers prior to the initial transcription. During the transcription of the interviews and presentation of results, pseudonyms will continue to be used to ensure anonymity for the participants. Answers to each interview question will be then grouped together so that all responses to individual interview questions could be analyzed as part of the iterative data analysis process. This process will be used to compare the codes developed with each data set and to ensure that all data will be included in the analysis process.
For each interview question, participants will be assigned a different color which enables the researcher to easily distinguish between individual participant responses. The codes from the interview formats will be developed or expanded and refined or combined throughout the data analytic process.Following the development of coded data, similar chunks of coded data will be combined, condensed, and examined to identify emergent themes. A cross-case analysis assists in the process of identifying, formulating and developing themes between the individual participant’s views of their roles, responsibilities and experiences.
Data AnalysisThe data treatment and analysis will be customized to meet the study conditions. The survey and interview data will be collected, stored, and analyzed in a confidential manner. Reliability and validity of the survey instrument will be established prior to this study. Interview data will be credited as valid based on meeting three of Creswell’s eight verification procedures used to establish validity in qualitative research. The three verification procedures are triangulation of the data, clarification of researcher bias, and member checking.
Triangulation of the data will be achieved by using multiple data-collection methods. Both the survey and the interview guide collected data pertaining to the same variables identified in the literature, outlined in the research questions, and informed by the conceptual framework. Early findings from the survey data will be used to create the follow-up interview questions found in the interview guide.Next, validity will be established by clarification of researcher bias. The researcher will note her own subjectivity and monitors it throughout the research.
She shall remain aware of his personal identity, values, and personality and the role they played in her position as researcher. Efforts will be made to establish validity by incorporating member checking. All participants will be given transcripts of their interviews to verify and edit. In addition, participants in the survey sample will be given an opportunity to submit their contact information in order to receive a copy of the draft resulting from this research.Descriptive Statistics for Survey DataData processing will be done through the use of SPSS version 20 and will be analyzed utilizing the following techniques in presenting the data for quantitative analyses, including: Frequency and Percentage will be used to analyze the profile of the respondents.
Mean will be used to describe the scores on the barriers encountered by the women superintendents, effective strategies they used in attaining the superintendency position, and their resiliency and perseverance skills in sustaining their position. Moreover, the Standard Deviation will be used to describe how far the individual scores tend to vary from the mean. This will be interpreted such that distributions with SD < 1 are considered with low-variability, while those with SD > 1 are considered high-variability.Pearson Product Moment Coefficient of Correlation will be employed to determine the significant relationship between the barriers encountered and the resiliency and perseverance skills in attaining and sustaining superintendency position as assessed by the respondents themselves. The same will be used to make a decision whether to accept or reject the null hypothesis.
The analysis of hypothesis test using the Pearson correlation will be computed at 5% level of significance, stating that: : “The null hypothesis is accepted if the computed significance value is greater than the set value at 0.05, otherwise, it is rejected.”Pearson r Value Strength of Correlation±.70 and above Very Strong±.40 to ±.69 Strong±.30 to ±.39 Moderate±.20 to ±.29 Weak±.01 to ±.19 Negligible Moreover, the strength of correlation will be interpreted using the interpretation guide below: A positive correlation is a relationship between two variables such that their values increase or decrease together while a negative correlation is a relationship between two variables such that as the value of one variable increases, the other decreases or vice versa.