The sulat Wawa system eventually become the popular orthography for Kapampangan, with the influence of the national official language, Tagalog (which adopted the Abakada system). The third system, the Amung Samson hybrid orthography, is a system intended to resolve the conflict on spelling between the proponents of the sulat Baculud and sulat Wawa. The Kapampangan language have three standard written forms and thus, spelling is often difficult. It was only recently that it has been standardized through the use of Ortograpiyang Kapampangan. 2.
1.1. Different words but same meaning There are words that are different from Minalin and San Simon.
A teacher (T1) who was a native of San Simon Pampanga who was able to marry at Minalin gave her own example of a term. She said that natumba (fell down) in San Simon is mitongga while in Minalin it is mituwang. Another given example (T4) are words use for “Umuulan or Umaambon”. In some places in Pampanga, it is lilintik, while in others it is papatik. 2.
1.2. Same words but different meanings Another example of terms given by two teachers (T1, T4) was the word “asan”. In San Simon “asan” means fish but in San Fernando, asan already means viand. In Minalin just adding the word “danum” (asan danum) will make it mean fish. Abakan can mean breakfast, but in other place of Pampanga it means lunch or dinner.
Another experience of teacher in instruction (T3) is the word “biga”. Since Macabebe is one of the municipalities near Bulacan, biga for them means beam just like what is used in the Tagalog area. She was confused of the example given in the learners’ material that she asked her co-teacher older than her for its meaning. Only to find out that biga in Macabebe is clouds. She confessed that even if she is a native of Pampanga, there are words that she cannot understand.
2.2. Inadequate Vocabulary Fluency in using your mother tongue means that you are confident in using the language and you can proudly say that you are effortless in using it. All the teacher participants are natives of Pampanga and their first language or mother tongue is Kapampangan. The participants’ native towns are Apalit, Minalin, Macabebe, and San Simon. All of these are Kapampangan speaking towns. MTB teachers teaching in Kindergarten to year 3 (K-3) should be natives of their hometown.
They have to be familiar with the language since they will be using Kapampangan as the language of instruction. And so, it is expected that Kapampangan teachers have rich and wide vocabulary. All the teacher participants admitted that there are some Kapampangan words that they do not know and understand. A teacher participant (T3) shared that even if she grew up in Pampanga, she found it hard to teach using their mother tongue, especially during the first year of implementation of MTB-MLE program.
Truly, she can communicate in Kapampangan conversational, but she sometimes encounters words that are new to her ears. She even asked older people in the place to explain the meaning of the words. The other teacher (T2) disclosed that she really studies her lessons first (self-study) to know the meaning of the words, diction and its pronunciation.
“There are words in Kapampangan with the same spelling but with different diction. If you mispronounced it, it can give different meaning.” 2.3. Insufficient Materials Instructional materials play important role and an essential key to successful teaching and learning in classroom instruction.
The Department of Education provided K to 12 Teacher’s Guide (TG) and Learners Materials (LM) as resources to be used in preparing daily lessons. Additional resources like the Learning Resources Management and Development System (LRMDS) portal and other supplementary materials whether digital, multimedia or online, including the teacher-made materials are also included. 2.3.1. Teachers Guide The aim of the K to 12 Teacher’s Guide is to help all the teachers prepare units of work that integrate listening, speaking, reading, writing, and learning. This guide also help teachers to expand their range of teaching techniques and think of the opportunities children will need to achieve the goals successfully. It is a necessity among teachers so that it can guide them especially during the initial implementation of any new program.
But was this the scenario during those days? One of the Kapampangan teacher participants (T2) received her Teacher’s Guide a year after its first year of implementation. She said, “On its first year of implementation in Grade 1, there was no enough materials provided for our school. After the 7-day seminar provided by DepEd about MTB-MLE, the Grade 1 teachers in our school, including myself, received less than what we need.” She added that they did not received the Teacher’s Guide but only the Learner’s Materials. The DepEd promised to deliver it just make a follow-up. But that school year has ended and they did not received at all.
The poor teachers just made use of the Learners’ materials as guide in preparing their lesson plans (later becomes Daily Learning Log or DLL). This further shows that our DepEd teachers are resourceful, creative and flexible in their own ways. 2.3.
2. Learners’ Materials According to DepEd, Learners Materials are the resources teachers use to deliver instruction that can support learning and increase student success. These are important because they increase the possibility of student achievement by reinforcing their learning. The K to 12 Learners Materials are now available online via DepEd Resources website and the Learning Resources Management and Development System (LRMDS) portal.
The learners do not have books but only learners’ materials written in mother tongue confessed by a teacher (T4). Too many students are not given the instructional materials they need to succeed. Students have no real opportunity to learn and to meet the academic standards when they lack access to quality and up-to-date instructional materials.
All the Grade 1 and Grade 2 teachers I interviewed witnessed and experienced the transition period from BEC to the Enhanced Basic education Curriculum that highlights the MTB-MLE Program. The teachers (T1, T3, T4) admitted that up to this moment they still do not have complete Learners Materials. It further means that there is no one is to one ratio of the students and the learners’ materials.
On the other hand, higher levels from Grade 2 to Grade 6 have received sufficient materials. If you will analyse it, the first year of implementation was not monitored well because they were busy on the succeeding years of its ladderized implementation. They became busy focusing on the learners materials of the next grade level that they have neglected the Grade 1 learners’ materials. A teacher (T1) said that up to this moment she doesn’t have learners materials in Araling Panlipunan for the second quarter and in Mathematics for the first and second quarters, She added that the first batch of the MTB-MLE program will graduate this school year 2017-2018 but the learners materials are still not sufficient. Another Grade 1 (T4) teacher also admitted that they only have sufficient learners’ materials in English but in other subjects, they only received few copies that is to be divided to the number of sections in the level since 2012. She also stated, “If DepEd gave us 20 learners materials in a subject and we have four sections, each section will only receive 5 copies each. If they provided 8 copies, then we receive 2 copies each. So we do not give it to the children immediately, instead, we reproduce them for the learners benefit.
” She said with sadness that Grade 1 was not given enough attention unlike Grade 2 to Grade 6 that they have complete supply of learners materials. She also added that the learners materials given way back 2011-2012 were not well-made or made of sturdy materials. Some have loosen its pages that she has to cover them with cartolina for them to last for years more. This is the same with the sentiments of another Grade 1 teacher (T1), that the students do not have ratio of one is to one. She cited an example of her class size of 40 but given only 12 copies of learners materials in MAPEH, then another 16 copies the next school year. If the enrolment is below 25 in each class, the materials is enough but if it again increases to 40, the materials are insufficient. One teacher (T5), when asked if DepEd provided enough materials, just simply nodded her head which implies yes but no more elaboration about it. 2.
4. Fluency of the Learners in their Mother Tongue All of the teacher participants told that the children in Pampanga at an early age become familiar with Tagalog because parents talk to them in Tagalog. The reason of parents is that it is for them to know and understand the language as a way of getting ready for schooling. It means that children are not that fluent in using their own mother tongue. Does it mean that their mother tongue is Tagalog? One teacher (T4) commented that everyone experienced adjustment in the implementation of MTB-MLE including the teachers, parents, and learners.
Since most parents talk to the children using Filipino, they cannot speak fluently using Kapampangan. She directly said that, “They are more equipped in using Filipino for communication.” A teacher (T2) shared her experience with her own kids. She personally talks to her own kids in Tagalog, even though his husband is also Kapampangan. She also deliberately enrolled her kids in a private school because private schools do not follow with the use of mother tongue as a medium of instruction, only as a subject. The teacher also shared that her children understands Kapampangan but not fluent in using them for communication. Another teacher participant (T3) also shared her wishes that if only she has enoughf money, she would probably send her kids to private institutions. She is worried that her kids might experience hard time in the transition from MTB to regular Grade 4 classes using only Filipino and English, and bye-bye to mother tongue or Kapampangan.
She also admitted that she talks to her kids in Tagalog so they are more prepared in their formal schooling. Pampanga is just nearby province of Bulacan and Manila. There are many Kapampangans who tend to marry Tagalogs, the reason that children speak more fluently in Tagalog. Their means of communication at home is Tagalog. One teacher (T4) shared that the central school in Apalit has one section with Tagalog (Filipino) as the medium of instruction. This is one way to accommodate the growing number of Tagalog speaking children in Pampanga.
Since it is a central school and has a large population compared with regular schools, they were able to create one section in which Tagalog is the mother tongue. In many gatherings Kapampangans seem more confident and articulate in exchanging views and ideas among their own Kabalen ‘countrymen’ in Tagalog which is the vernacular in the Philippines, than they would in their own native language. For instance, many Catholic priests are now delivering their homilies in the Tagalog language during a Kapampangan liturgy while high school student meetings are conducted in the Tagalog language even if all the participants are Kapampangans. The Kapampangan people are surrounded by other languages of the Philippines and therefore you should expect influences from these neighbors to influence the vocabulary over time. Tagalog has now got the advantage of also being the national language, and the language of Manila, the capital of the Philippines, and therefore Kapampangan has a large number of words borrowed from Tagalog. More and more frequently, some Kapampangan speakers replace, in their every day language, the Kapampangan words and phrases by their English equivalent, although keeping most of the sentence structure in Kapampangan.
This mixed language is referred to as Kapanglish (in the same way that Taglish refers to Tagalog mixed with English words and phrases). 3. Mechanisms Used by the MTB Teachers to Cope with the Challenges 3.1. Use of Ortograpiyang Kapampangan This was materialized with the help of the Governor of the province (2014) and has been revised in 2016 with the help from Commission on Language in Pampanga.
To have a standardization on their language, they produce only one dictionary for all Kapampangans to alleviate conflict on its diversity. The book was entitled “Ortograpiyang Kapampangan” and was written in Kapampangan with English translation on every page. This was disseminated to Kapampangan teachers for free during one of the conducted seminars for the whole province of Pampanga about MTB-MLE. Echoing to the concerned teachers per cluster was done for those who were not able to attend.
Ortograpiyang Kapampangan becomes one of the solutions particularly on some very old and traditional Kapampangan terminologies that teachers have not encountered before or do not understand. In addition, Kapampangan alphabet now has 28 letters just like the Philippine alphabet, compared with the original 18-21 letter alphabet. One illustration given by the teacher (T5) is the term “pakalodyu.
” She at first does not know the meaning of it, only to find out that is the Kapampangan terminology for acacia which is a tree. 3.2. Translation of Mother Tongue to Tagalog There are a number of families moved from Tagalog region to Apalit. The teacher (T3) participant uses translation and explains the lesson in Tagalog for them to understand that sometimes result to individualized teaching. But later on, as the non-speakers socialize with their Kapampangan classmates and through the efforts of the parents to teach their kids the language, the students understand and are able to use Kapampangan language before the school year ends.
In addition to migrated families, many Kapampangan parents practice talking to their kids in Tagalog from the time they begin to understand the world around them. Another teacher participant (T4) admitted that she first teaches the lesson in mother tongue, then, if she observes that they cannot comprehend, she translates it to Filipino. There are students in the class that are not natives of Pampanga, and even if they are natives, they are not fluent in using their mother tongue. Sharing her experience about what she did with a Tagalog speaking child in the room revealed that the teachers use translation. The teacher participant (T2) personally talked to the parents about tutorial in Kapampangan language because the learners’ materials are all written in Kapampangan. Moreover, she even mentioned that all the test papers are also in Kapampangan language.
It implies that the child has to learn the language if he/she will be staying and spending their Grades 1 to 3 in the school. In this situation, they really translate the examinations to Tagalog especially the direction of the test for understanding. They also advised that whenever there are questions, assure that the teachers are willing to assist them. A veteran teacher of Grade 1(T4) disclosed that, “Here in Pampanga, even at a young age, the parents talk to their children in Filipino. They do not talk to them using their mother tongue or Kapampangan for the reason that when they enter formal schooling, they already know the Filipino language.” 3.3.
Development and Delivery of Quality Learning Resources and Strategies in Mother Tongue 3.3.1.
DepEd Portals The Department of Education has an online website on Learning Resources Management and Development System (LRMDS) portal. The teachers can download Teacher’s Guide (TG), Daily Learning Log (DLL), and other resources This was started based on the website on year 2015. Another website shared by a teacher (T2) is DepEd Tambayan where they can download DLL that is available in English, Filipino and some in Kapampangan. The teacher just need to have access in the internet for easy download of the needed materials. This implies that DepEd is making other ways to lessen the inadequacy of instructional materials they provide.
The agency continuously supply other resources that the teachers might be needing for instruction. 3.3.2. Use of ICT, multimedia projectors The use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in the classroom with the generation.com students truly motivate the learners and sustain their interests.
It is now easier to make colorful presentations that are attractive for them. There are some classrooms but not all are with multimedia projectors or LED televisions. The teachers (T1, T4) said, “The learners are happier and active if the teacher uses Powerpoint Presentations.” This shows that the new generation are more engrossed and participative with the use of modern technology in the classroom. Other teachers admitted that through the help of the generous and concerned parents they were able to produce these equipment.
3.3.3. Teacher-Made Materials One of the accepted truth in the life of a teacher is producing teacher-made materials that will aid in the presentation of her lesson. Through the use of printed pictures, charts, flash cards, puzzles, and the most traditional is the use of cartolina and Manila paper serve as supplemental materials for learning. Self-Learning Kit (SLK) was created by a teacher (T5) written in Kapampangan to be provided for all MTB teachers in their cluster.
Since she just attended seminar, it was an assigned task to her to echo this learning to others. All teachers shared they produce their own visual materials to present different Kapampangan stories. 3.
3.4. Individualized Coaching/remediation During examination, individual coaching is observed to those non-speakers of Kapampangan. For the learners to cope with the lesson and examinations, the teachers (T1,T2,T3,T4) always assist them for translation of directions and others.
3.4. Utilization of Localized Stories, Songs, and Big Books Beside from what are written in their learners materials like stories and songs, teachers also look for other learning materials available in the locality. If the given stories did not provide illustrations, these teachers make their own. There are recorded Kapampangan songs as mentioned by a teacher (T3) that can be played in the classroom. With the MTB-MLE, the learners really have an opportunity to learn and appreciate their own culture.
Since the teachers during the first year of its implementation were not also familiar with the other Kapampangan songs, a student from University of the Philippines volunteered to study and record the songs. The teachers now can play the songs using their CD players. One teacher participant (T1) shared her experience that there are classrooms without the CD players, so they just pattern the songs they do not know to the familiar tunes known by the children. She believes that it is better than presenting none at all. There were creative teachers in the province who were able to publish Big Books with Kapampangan stories with illustrations in every page.
Teachers are now using them in the classroom. When Big Books were not yet available a teacher (T4) proudly admitted that she made her own illustrations of the story in short bond papers and just flashed it to the kids one at a time as she tells the story. All their shared experiences shows their resourcefulness and creativity. These are characteristics of successful teachers, the teachers with big hearts truly are willing to do their tasks and these are evident in their actions. 3.5.
Harmonious Relationship of the Teacher and Parents for Children’s Maximum Development All the teacher respondents have established rapport towards parents of their learners. They oriented the parents about K to 12 even up to the grading systems and giving of honors to avoid conflict. Parents from different schools were worried and asked them why their children need to use Kapampangan in all their subjects except English? The teacher’s one way of communicating to their parents is through the children’s diaries to write down the learning activities for each day including the reminders and announcement to parents (T1). During the distribution of report cards, grading system is explained by the adviser.
There is a Parent-Teacher Association in every class and its officers are also helping in the successful attainment of the school goals. A teacher (T4) admitted that her PTA officers in the present school year are generous and willing to contribute to the class a basic printer that can be used for reproduction of the learners’ materials. Since the learners materials are not enough for the number of students in the class, the teacher was overwhelmed with the cooperation shown and the big help the parents contributed to the class. 3.6.
Teachers’ Participation in In-Service Seminars and Trainings about MTB-MLE All the teachers are requires to attend seminars and training provided by DepEd. This is done if not in the Division level, it is done per cluster. Struggling Readers is a regional seminar and the teacher who attended it (T5) was assigned to echo it to all the teachers in their cluster. Demonstration teaching and showcase of the instructional materials prepared by the school master teacher. This materials are also shared it online for everybody’s usage. 4. Teacher’s Suggestions Based from the reactions of the teacher respondents, I can see and feel their dedication and passion in their profession. If only they can do something to make the children learn easily, they will definitely do it.
When I asked them if they are in favor using the mother tongue in teaching, four of the respondents (T3, T4, T5) suggested that MTB only as a subject is much better than using mother tongue which is Kapampangan as a medium of instruction in all the subjects. They find it hard to teach Mathematics and Science using the mother tongue. T3 suggested that the medium of instruction in Math and English, if possible, is English, and Araling Panlipunan in Filipino. T4 even mentioned that in private schools they only have MTB as a subject and not all subjects are taught in Kapampangan. T1 and T3, on the other hand, agreed on MTB as a medium of instruction but not in Reading.
She would like to have the subject Reading from the very beginning of Grade 1 to develop good diction and fluency and comprehension in English. Another suggestion that the teachers would like to give attention was the language being used during academic contest like the Metrobank-MTAP-DepEd Math Challenge (MMC). They disclosed that questions in the said contest is in English.
If the children are well-versed with Kapampangan and have not yet experienced English with fluency, it will become a disadvantage on their part. Since the mother tongue of the locality is used in the province, it should be better that questions from Grades 1 to 3 are in their first language.