The locomotives, carriages coupled together and are controlled

The rail industry is
typically segmented into the following categories: rolling stock (trainsets),
infrastructure (components, rails, installation, etc.), rail signaling or train
control, and services. Rolling stock industry is further segmented into trains,
locomotives, and wagons. Basically, rolling stock and locomotives comprises all
the vehicles that move on a railway track. There is a wide range of types of
rolling stock, which can be broken down in various segments:

This report segments
the type of trains serviced by the following categories: high speed/very high
speed (VHS), mainlines, light rail, metro/subway, freight, and
industrial/mining. While definitions vary by geography, high-speed trains
typically operate at 200 to 250 km/hour and VHS trains range from 300 to 350
km/hour. Mainlines are traditional rolling stock and infra-structure operations,
typically used for passengers but may also be used for freight. (Very) high
speed trains run at speeds of at least 220 km/h. The trains can consist of
multiple units or can be a single carriage, with a driver’s cab at one or both

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Light rail or light
rail transit is a form of urban/suburban rail public transportation that
generally has a lower capacity and lower speed than heavy rail and metro
systems. The metro/subway category includes rapid transit, underground, subway,
elevated railway, and metro railway systems with a high capacity and frequency.
These systems are typically located in underground tunnels, on elevated rails
above street level, or outside urban centers, or they may run on grade separated
ground level tracks.

Multiple units are
self-propelled rail cars, without locomotives, carriages coupled together and are
controlled by one driving train set. Multiple units are classified based on the
source of power they need to function; electric multiple unit (EMU) or diesel
multiple unit (DMU). They are primarily used for passenger transport. Sometimes
a further differentiation is based on speed and/or the type of lines they serve
(eg. Intercity, regional, local). Wagons are passenger railway vehicles other
than passenger railcars, and include sleeping cars, saloon cars, dining cars,
etc. Freight wagons are railway vehicles intended for transport of goods
connected to locomotive to pull the set of wagons.

Locomotives provide the
main power for a train movement along the tracks. Newly designed metros are
self-propelled trainsets which do not need separate locomotive. A further
classification of locomotives is based on their power source, mainly diesel or

The freight category is
used to separate solutions specifically targeted for freight, not passenger,
operations. The industrial/mining category is a burgeoning one characterized by
lower speed requirements, a tendency to look beyond conventional signaling due
to maintenance and other issues, and a rising interest in driverless operation.

The research also
segments the market based on geography. The four segmentations are North
America; Europe, Middle East, and Africa; Asia Pacific; and South America.