Thepurpose of the chapter is to present the literature relevant to the topic. Theimportance of the topic from an international perspective is presented. Thefindings from other research studies are shared. The chapter highlights the keyconcepts that are specific, relevant or related to illegal dumping. Theconcepts are defined in order to give them meaning in the context of thisstudy.
The defining of concepts is followed by literature review. Literaturereview focuses on studies of similar nature and what they have revealed aboutillegal dumping. The hypothesis of the study read as ” Illegal dumping is a consequence of inadequate wastemanagement education, awareness and lack of policy enforcement” The opening statement of nationalpolicy on provision of basic refuse removal to indigent households opens withthis statement “The provision of an adequate and sustainable waste servicedelivery system in South Africa has had many challenges and there has been verylittle progress with regard to significant movement in this area. https://cer.org.za/wp-.Theconcept of illegal dumping is related to solid waste management.
Waste can bedefined as “material, substance or product that the owner no longer wantsat a given place and time”(Londan 2011:70). The concept of domestic solidwaste is critical in the study because the focus is primarily on a site withina village where a lot of dumping is happening. Domestic solid waste (GeneralWaste) is solid waste generated by single or multifamily residential dwellings,and solid waste of a non-hazardous nature (http://www.durban.gov.za). Thedefinition can go on to include other establishments that generatesnon-hazardous waste.
Illegal dumping in this study refers to the dumping ofdomestic waste or refuse on the sitethat is not designated for this purpose by the local or provincial authority.The formal definition of illegal dumping is “discarding waste in an improper orillegal manner, where it doesn’t belong and/or where environmental damage islikely because of the improper disposal”. (http://www.westmorelandcleanways.
org).Wastemanagement, at a broader level falls with the literature of sustainabledevelopment. The issue of environment and way human interacts with it was firstregistered as a global concern in 1972 at the United Nations Conference on theHuman Environment held in Stockholm Treurnicht, (2011:416). One of the outcomesof the conference was the adoption of the declaration on human environment.
Thedeclaration identified principles thatare key to the human environment e.g. principle number two speaks about thenatural resources (air, water, flora, fauna) and emphasise that they must bewell managed, (http://www.
)whereas principle number six and seven touch on pollution. The two principlesdiscourages man made pollution actionson the oceans/marine resources and other forms of life. The study of illegaldumping practices can be described as form of environmental pollution which isdirected to land to be precise.
The history of the development of sustainabledevelopment into a concept and later into acts and policies then qualifiesillegal dumping a global problem. According to the Bruntland Commission,sustainable development is defined as ” development that meets the needsof the present, without compromising the ability of future generations to meettheir own needs” (Treurnicht 2011:414). The definition of sustainabledevelopment as a concept can be further understood when the elements or aspectsof sustainable development are brought to light. The aspects of sustainabledevelopment are social, economic,cultural, political, geographical and ecological, Treurnicht (2011:414). Furthermore,the aspects of social, economic/financial and environmental sustainability areflagged out as the most profound for development. In SA, definition ofsustainable development is understood to mean “development that does notuse up resources more quickly than they are replaced by natural processes ornew technology” (Treurnicht 2011:415). Drawingfrom a study of illegal dumping by Troschinet& Mihelcic, (2009) There are 12 factors that influence waste managementsuccess particularly sustainable recycling. The 12 elements identified by Troshchinet et al (2009:922) governmentpolicy, government finances, waste characterization, waste collection andsegregation, household education, household economics, Municipal Solid Waste Managementadministration (MSWM), MSWM personnel education, MSWM plan, localrecycled-material market, technological and human resources, and landavailability.
The study conducted touched on elements on government policy,waste collection and household education. Withinthe SA context, there is a sound legislative framework that guides solid wastemanagement and the environmental management. The over-arching act will be The environmentalmanagement act: waste act 59 of 2008 (Republic of SA) states that the actexists in order to makes provisions for management of waste.
Another purpose ofthis act is to prevent pollution and environmental degradation as well as toprovide for compliance and enforcement amongst other things. The NationalPolicy on Provision of Basic Refuse Removal to Indigent Households ((FBRR),Government Notice Notice34385, 22 (June 2011) makes reference to makes The Waste Act and states that this act compels municipalities toput in place Integrated Waste Management Plans (IWMPs). The IWMPs are part ofsustainable waste management. This then means that there is legislative framework that guides local governmenton waste managementOneof the key concepts that results from the over-arching policy (59 of 2008,Republic of SA) is Sustainable waste management. This concept implementedthrough the development of an Integrated waste management plan at a localgovernment level. Each municipality isrequired to have an integrated waste management plan.
The latter consolidatesdifferent strategies of waste management. The strategies of waste managementare better defined by hierarchy of waste management. The hierarchy is made upof four components i.e. Reduce (minimisethe amount of waste produced), Re-use ( Use materials more than once) Recycling(use materials more than once) therefore concerned with sorting, processing, and transportation ofsolid waste materials, products or containers for the purpose of remanufactureor reused and Disposal which is perceived as the worst or less desired optionfor waste disposal.
The study will use the hierarchy to reveal which of thewaste management strategies are being employed in the community under study. Theanalysis of solid waste management strategies implemented in the village underconcern with be scrutinised within the parameters of guiding principles andconcepts of solid waste management. An example will be the principles outlinedin the sustainable development conceptwhere it is stated that Sustainable development requires that the generation ofwaste is avoided, or where it cannot be avoided, that it is reduced, re-used,recycled or recovered and only as a last resort treated and safely disposed (https://cer.
org.za/wp). It is for this reasonthat hierachy of waste management will be used as a theoretical framework forthe study. Below are images that depicts waste management hierachy, thedifference between figure one and figure 2 is that one provides descriptionsabout each waste management strategy.