The management. Waste can be defined as “material,

purpose of the chapter is to present the literature relevant to the topic. The
importance of the topic from an international perspective is presented. The
findings from other research studies are shared. The chapter highlights the key
concepts that are specific, relevant or related to illegal dumping. The
concepts are defined in order to give them meaning in the context of this
study. The defining of concepts is followed by literature review. Literature
review focuses on studies of similar nature and what they have revealed about
illegal dumping. The hypothesis of the study read as ” Illegal dumping is a consequence of inadequate waste
management education, awareness and lack of policy enforcement”

The opening statement of national
policy on provision of basic refuse removal to indigent households opens with
this statement “The provision of an adequate and sustainable waste service
delivery system in South Africa has had many challenges and there has been very
little progress with regard to significant movement in this area.

concept of illegal dumping is related to solid waste management. Waste can be
defined as “material, substance or product that the owner no longer wants
at a given place and time”(Londan 2011:70). The concept of domestic solid
waste is critical in the study because the focus is primarily on a site within
a village where a lot of dumping is happening. Domestic solid waste (General
Waste) is solid waste generated by single or multifamily residential dwellings,
and solid waste of a non-hazardous nature ( The
definition can go on to include other establishments that generates
non-hazardous waste. Illegal dumping in this study refers to the dumping of
domestic waste  or refuse on the site
that is not designated for this purpose by the local or provincial authority.
The formal definition of illegal dumping is “discarding waste in an improper or
illegal manner, where it doesn’t belong and/or where environmental damage is
likely because of the improper disposal”. (

management, at a broader level falls with the literature of sustainable
development. The issue of environment and way human interacts with it was first
registered as a global concern in 1972 at the United Nations Conference on the
Human Environment held in Stockholm Treurnicht, (2011:416). One of the outcomes
of the conference was the adoption of the declaration on human environment. The
declaration  identified principles that
are key to the human environment e.g. principle number two speaks about the
natural resources (air, water, flora, fauna) and emphasise that they must be
well managed,  (
whereas principle number six and seven touch on pollution. The two principles
discourages man made pollution  actions
on the oceans/marine resources and other forms of life. The study of illegal
dumping practices can be described as form of environmental pollution which is
directed to land  to be precise.

 The history of the development of sustainable
development into a concept and later into acts and policies then qualifies
illegal dumping a global problem. According to the Bruntland Commission,
sustainable development is defined as ” development that meets the needs
of the present, without compromising the ability of future generations to meet
their own needs” (Treurnicht 2011:414). The definition of sustainable
development as a concept can be further understood when the elements or aspects
of sustainable development are brought to light. The aspects of sustainable
development are  social, economic,
cultural, political, geographical and ecological, Treurnicht (2011:414).  

the aspects of social, economic/financial and environmental sustainability are
flagged out as the most profound for development. In SA, definition of
sustainable development is understood to mean “development that does not
use up resources more quickly than they are replaced by natural processes or
new technology” (Treurnicht 2011:415).

from a study of illegal dumping by  Troschinet
& Mihelcic, (2009) There are 12 factors that influence waste management
success particularly sustainable recycling. 
The 12 elements identified by Troshchinet et al (2009:922) government
policy, government finances, waste characterization, waste collection and
segregation, household education, household economics, Municipal Solid Waste Management
administration (MSWM), MSWM personnel education, MSWM plan, local
recycled-material market, technological and human resources, and land
availability. The study conducted touched on elements on government policy,
waste collection and household education.

the SA context, there is a sound legislative framework that guides solid waste
management and the environmental management.  The over-arching act will be The environmental
management act: waste act 59 of 2008 (Republic of SA) states that the act
exists in order to makes provisions for management of waste. Another purpose of
this act is to prevent pollution and environmental degradation as well as to
provide for compliance and enforcement amongst other things. The National
Policy on Provision of Basic Refuse Removal to Indigent Households ((FBRR),
Government Notice  Notice
34385, 22 (June 2011) makes reference to 
makes The Waste Act and states that this act compels municipalities to
put in place Integrated Waste Management Plans (IWMPs). The IWMPs are part of
sustainable waste management. This then means that there is  legislative framework that guides local government
on waste management

of the key concepts that results from the over-arching policy (59 of 2008,
Republic of SA) is Sustainable waste management. This concept implemented
through the development of an Integrated waste management plan at a local
government level.  Each municipality is
required to have an integrated waste management plan. The latter consolidates
different strategies of waste management. The strategies of waste management
are better defined by hierarchy of waste management. The hierarchy is made up
of four components i.e.  Reduce (minimise
the amount of waste produced), Re-use ( Use materials more than once) Recycling
(use materials more than once) therefore concerned with  sorting, processing, and transportation of
solid waste materials, products or containers for the purpose of remanufacture
or reused and Disposal which is perceived as the worst or less desired option
for waste disposal. The study will use the hierarchy to reveal which of the
waste management strategies are being employed in the community under study.

analysis of solid waste management strategies implemented in the village under
concern with be scrutinised within the parameters of guiding principles and
concepts of solid waste management. An example will be the principles outlined
in the sustainable development  concept
where it is stated that Sustainable development requires that the generation of
waste is avoided, or where it cannot be avoided, that it is reduced, re-used,
recycled or recovered and only as a last resort treated and safely disposed ( It is for this reason
that hierachy of waste management will be used as a theoretical framework for
the study. Below are images that depicts waste management hierachy, the
difference between figure one and figure 2 is that one provides descriptions
about each waste management strategy.