The never really existed as an independent nation.

The Unfinished Nation-What Price Freedom 1.  Example (you can use this if you want to):  According to W. Fitzhugh Brundage, Ph.D., from the University of North Carolina, how did Lincoln deal with the constitutional issue of how to negotiate with the Confederate government?  He argued that the Southern States existed in a state of rebellion but had never really existed as an independent nation. 2. The Republicans did not agree with Abraham Lincoln’s tolerant policy, according to Waugh, why did they not accept it or agree with it? Republicans did not want the South to be accepted back into the Union, they wanted the South to “pay” for what they did or caused. The republicans would only accept the South back if they were basically “punished,” that is by, as Waugh stated, Emancipation, Black Suffrage, and Civil Rights, along with other disabilities.3. What does Joan Waugh mean by the “south being confused” and their social system destroyed? Their own (Southern) soldiers destroyed their own land, they set fire to the warehouses so Northerners would not get to keep them. She means their society was destroyed, literally, their land was completely destroyed and by their own soldiers. When the southern soldiers came “home” they had no home to come to, it was destroyed. 4. According to W. Fitzhugh Brundage, Ph.D., from the University of North Carolina, why couldn’t confederate generals, confederate bureaucrats, Administrators, and Politicos, “come to Washington in 1865?” He argued that those “meetings” would cause the “eruption” of an aggressive discussion between Johnson and Congressional Republicans on the topic of what they should do with the south. They wouldn’t come to an agreement on what the next move would be, how they should handle that situation with the south, would they be accepted back or not? Or what consequences would they have if any?5.  According to Joan Waugh, why did member of congress want to impeach Johnson? Why was he an “obstructionist?” She argues that many members of congress wanted to impeach him because of exactly that, he was an “obstructionist.” He was labeled as so because he would “veto” any bill that members tried to pass. If he wasn’t allowing any “reconstruction” then what was the point of that war? Blacks HAD to have freedom, if they didn’t then why exactly did the South and the North go into combat? In fewer words, Johnson wasn’t allowing any change, which was the main reason the South and the North went into war. The Unfinished Nation-Tattered Remains In the South, what system evolved as a result of the Banking system being destroyed in the South? The system of “sharecropping” came to the surface due to the absence of money in the South. The whites traded access to land, and some tools, to the blacks for a “percentage” of the crops.  This system was not something blacks could benefit from, the interest was absolutely too high and they would always find themselves in debt since they had to buy many things from the landowners. In 1870 and 1871, the Republican congress passed two enforcement acts, what was the purpose of those acts? These acts were an attempt to turn back white repression. These acts allowed the Federal government to “confront Klan efforts to restrict the vote.” During that time the Ku Klux Klan was active, trying to restore white supremacy. These acts were the first time that the Government had claimed power to” be able to prosecute individual crimes under Federal Law.”Every southern state that wanted to be back in the Union had to accept black suffrage as a condition to do so. How did they “work hard” to end black suffrage? They worked to implement laws like “literacy tests, property taxes, property tests, poll taxes, and many other limitations on their right to vote.” They made it harder for African Americans to be able to register and vote by placing these “laws.”According to W. Fitzhugh Brundage, Ph.D., from the University of North Carolina, In the American south, the purpose or the function of lynching “has nothing to do with the mythic image of lynching.” What was the purpose of the lynching in the American south? According to Brundage, the function of lynching in the American south was a “brutal form of oppression.” With the goal of intimidating, silencing, and terrorizing African Americans.According to Joan Waugh, why does reconstruction “look like the civil war?” In a “broader perspective,” Reconstruction looks like the civil war because African Americans were not at all free. They feared for their life, they faced prejudice, they still depended on whites to be able to “prosper,” and they had a lot of barriers that stopped them from voting and enjoying their “rights.” African Americans were basically still fighting for their life even after the civil war “ended.”The Unfinished Nation-The Legendary Frontier What was a major economic surge that occured? Explain how it allowed the economy to grow? The emergence of the “cattle kingdom” allowed the economy to grow during that time. With the great supply of cattle south Texas had, they could sell their cattles to other states where they had a shortage of beef because of the Civil War. This allowed the states with a great supply of beef and little demand, to sell their oxen at a higher price to other states that had a high demand. The West, in stories, is typically portrayed as “dangerous” and “violent, but according to Elliot West, P.h.D. from the University of Arkansas, neighborhoods had one homicide annually. What was the real violence that happened in the West, not the mythical violence told in stories? The real and brutal violence that happened in the West was the violence towards Native Americans, Hispanics, Chinese, and the violence of capital against labor. What do you think Chief Joseph meant by “we were like deer. They were like Grizzly Bear?” After the Battle of the Little Bighorn, there was a demand to take all of the Indians who were not yet in the reservation, to be forced to go live there. General Howard was given the order to force Chief Joseph’s tribe to move out to the reservation. The Indians had made no agreement with the white men to divide up their land. From this, I think Chief Joseph meant that they were weak, the prey of the predator, and that they were not strong enough to start a war with the White men. Explain the Dawes Act of 1887 and whether or not it was a success. The Dawes Act of 1877 were caused by the government wanting to make Indians “Jeffersonian” model farmers and the west filling up with european Americans. These acts basically allowed the land to be divided into allotments for individuals indians. They were surveyed and each would be given a percentage of land that they could NOT sell. These acts were not at all successful. The indians lacked tools, money, and they had no experience in farming. The land they were given was dry and not good enough to be farmed.What are some of the Economic challenges that farmers face when they move to the Great Plains to cultivate the land? Since the area that they moved to to cultivate had a very unpredictable climate/environment, they had good years of crop growing and then they were hit with droughts. They had to develop plows that could cut through the tough ground and also develop a cheap tool to keep animals away from crops and water areas.