The Roaring Twenties – 1920-1929 – The Harlem Renaissance

Who was Zora Neale Hurston?
an African American girl living in Florida – won acclaim in the literary world – leading figure in New York City’s Harlem Renaissance

What became a favorite destination for black Americans migrating from the south?
Harlem, a neighborhood in upper Manhattan

What kept southern African Americans in a separate and unequal world?
segregation laws – racial violence was a constant threat

What did many African Americans look to the North with hope of?
finding the freedom and economic opportunities unavailable to them in the South – these hopes came true with the outbreak of World War I

Where did employers eagerly look for a new supply of workers?
the South – an African American newspapers, such as the Chicago Defender, spread the word

What is known as the Great Migration?
the major relocation of African Americans into northern cities

What were especially severe after WWI?
racial tensions – African Americans didn’t escape the effects of racism – shortage of jobs created tension between whites and African American workers

What did racial tension contribute to?
a wave of violence in the summer of 1919 – deadliest riot occurred in Chicago, Illinois – dispute at a public beach left 38 people dead and nearly 300 people injured

What added to racial tensions?
the changing expectations of African Americans – many believed they had earned greater freedom by helping fight in WWI

What became the unofficial capital of African American culture and activism?

What did Du Bois serve as the editor as?
The Crisis magazine – a major outlet for African American writing and poetry – helped promote the African American arts movement – Harlem Renaissance

What did Marcus Garvey found?
the Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA) – took great pride in his heritage – promoted self-reliance for African Americans

What did Garvey look forward to?
the day when African Americans from around the world could return to Africa and create a new empire – “Back to Africa”

What promoted trade among Africans around the world?
Garvey’s Black Star Line

What did Garvey hold to build UNIA enthusiasm?
colorful parades and wore military-style uniforms

Who kept the UNIA under close watch?
the FBI – charged Garvey with mail fraud in 1925 – Garvey went to prison – was released and forced to leave – UNIA collapsed

Who was James Weldon Johnson?
journalist, educator, and lawyer – “Lift Every Voice and Sing” – became the leader of the NAACP and his song became the anthem

Who was Claude McKay?
famous poet – “If We Must Die”

Who was Langston Hughes?
poet – wrote of black defiance and hope – major impact on the Harlem Renaissance

Who were William H. Johnson, Aaron Douglas, and Jacob Lawrence?
famous black artists

Who did the Harlem Renaissance create new opportunities for?
African American stage performers

Who was Paul Robeson?
famous movie and stage actor – played the lead character in Othello – also a singer – mulitalented

Who was Josephine Baker?
a singer and dancer

What was Harlem a vital center for?
jazz – blended several different musical forms from the Lower South into a wholly original American form of music

Who was Louis Armstrong?
a leading performer on the Harlem jazz scene – centered around clubs such as Savoy Ballroom and the Cotton Club – audience made up of white jazz fans

Who was Cab Calloway?
another leading jazz performer

Who were Duke Ellington and Fats Waller?

Who was Bessie Smith?
a great blues singer

What was jazz part of?
a wide cultural movement spreading throughout the United States