The social and ethnic fabric of British society changed forever as the result of the Second World War. After the world war, there was a pressing need to start the economy by increasing export (Booth 1989) the country desperately needed additional labour to supplement its own workforce if production target needed to be met which pioneer commonwealth citizens answered initially from West Indies and later from Africa, India and Pakistan.
However much of life in Britain during that time faced a post-war housing shortage in London and other large cities where many of the newcomers chose to live and work. The British public viewed their arrival to be unwelcome, as the result black and Asian immigrants found suitable jobs hard to come by and faced difficulties in the search for housing. This was due to the prejudicial mindset of many indigenous populations, people from all social classes who regarded dark skin tone as a sign of inferiority. (in 1997 the killers were recorded talking hatred toward black people and ethnic minority)Introduction In this country at least, racial discrimination is not a field in which the government action can make much difference (Whitfield 2006). The death of Stephen Lawrence in 1993 on an unprovoked racist attack, the metropolitan was branded as institutionally racist showing the subsequent failure of the police investigation which shocked the British society and subsequently changed the British criminal system. During this assignment I will be discussing to what extent has the relationship between people of colour and the police has improved since the Macpherson report, if it has improved at all; using statistic and reports I will analyse the data collected from the home office of stop and search, death while in custody since the Stephen Lawrence case to see if there are any changes in how police uses their power, are there racially targeting individuals, has the police changed fundamentally.
Policing in England and Wales has been regularly surrounded in recent decades by the accusation of discriminatory treatment and practice in relation to local minority ethnic communities. The most significant of these in recent time was the events surrounding the investigation of the murder of Stephen Lawrence in London, Eltham in 1993. Stephen Lawrence was not the first black teenage victim he also was not the last, however, his case was a racist killing and sparked a monumental change in British society. His death catapulted the metropolitan failings into the headlines following a flawed early investigation ( Macpherson 1999) the case attained increasing political momentum (Rock 2004), becoming both symbolic of the problem of racist violence in Britain and the inadequacy of policies to address it, and the focus of concerns about problematic police-community relation more broadly (Bowling 1999; Downes and Morgan 2002) providing the British society a moment of reflection and the ability to discuss the existent of racism and discrimination in society but also institutions, 23 years on even though Britain is a less racist country than it was 23 years ago, we still have a long way to go because there are still police officers who are institutionally racist. In 23 years despite the Macpherson, there is a constant debate between ethnic minorities and the police in the policy of stop and search which many British teenagers still fight the injustice of being stopped simply because of the colour of their skin. When combining the home office data of the metropolitan statistic it shows that the metropolitan police is intuitionally racist when comparing the stop and search that resulting in arrest from England and wales compare to the metropolitan for 2009/10 the statistic show lower proportions of White arrestees in the Metropolitan Police force (49% of all arrests) compared with England and Wales (80%) while the picture is reversed for other ethnic groups. The proportion of Black and Black British arrestees in the Metropolitan Police area (27% of all arrestees) is higher than in England and Wales (8%). Similarly, the proportion of Asian and Asian British arrestees in the Metropolitan Police (11%) exceeds that of England and Wales (6%).
Comparing this to the current statistic of 2015/16, there were 5 stop and searches for every 1,000 White people in England and Wales, while there was 31 stop and searches for every 1,000 Black people. in 2015/16, the biggest difference in rates of stop and search between Black and White people was in Dorset, where Black people were 19 times more likely to be stopped and searched than White people. The next biggest difference was found in Sussex, where Black people were 10 times more likely to be stopped and searched than White people, Durham was the only area where White people were more likely to be stopped and searched compared to Black people they were 1.2 times more likely. 2 years on (The Guardian 2017) states that stop, and search is eight times more likely to target black people even though official figures show that the use of stop and search has fallen by 21% in 2017 to just 304,000 which is the lowest number since 2002.
But stops of white people dropped by 28%, while for minority ethnic people the fall was just 11% indicating that ethnic people have still search more often than white people.