The solution to the apparently impossible problem of

The Italian

The first view of what renaissance was, how Europe became
under the period. It is more to describe like the cultural change, creations
and how history reflects on great accomplishment from that era.

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Santa Maria Del Fiore
– The cathedral of Florence As the locals call it The Duomo is one of the
most prominent landmarks in Florence, not only about the beauty but it as
hundreds of years’ worth of history, overall it took over 140 years to complete
the church.

Comparing the cities like Florence, Siena, Pisa everyone had
a large cathedrals, looked like their intentions was to outdo each other, the
biggest & the best. We can also understand that this was a typical scenario
during the renaissance. Sienese attempted to rebuild their cathedral on a
colossal scale, so vast that the existing cathedral, which is quite large,
would have been no more than one transept of the building. This project, which
always seemed optimistic, was brought to a consequently stand still because of
the black death in 1348. The Florentines overreached themselves in their desire
for an impressive church since the problem of the dome was to remain unsolved
for about a century and a quarter before the genius Brunelleschi was to find a
solution to the apparently impossible problem of covering it.Murray,1996,The
architecture of Italian renaissance(P.31)

Filippo Brunelleschi

One of the most influential
architects behind renaissance architecture, living his whole life in Florence.
Other aspects of him that also was a mechanical engineer, the first kind in the
modern times. He also formulated the principles of linear perspective which governed
pictorial depiction of space until late 19th century. He made
several trips to Rome, perhaps for research of different fundamental aspects,
this was also the start of the journey about the linear perspective.
Brunelleschi stands behind the crucifix of Santa Maria Novella. In 1414 he
repaired the Ponte a Mare in Pisa, also the master mind behind the dome of the
Santa Maria Del Fiore a style of gothic cathedral. He illustrated in two
perspective panels one depicted the Florentine Baptistery as viewed from the
Cathedral portal, and the other illustrated the Palazzo Vecchio. (Murray, 1996, p. 27)

The church was designed by Arnolfo di Cambio, enlarged the
existing religious structure and covered by coloured marbles like the early
baptistery, except the facade remained unfinished until 19th
century. The project was also left unfinished at the dome due to, since in 1431
only the “polygonale base had been erected.

There was to architects that won the competition of taking
the building further. Lorenzo Ghiberti (1368-1445) and Filippo Brunelleschi
(1377-1446) although it was the latter that actually ended up building the
dome, by showing great technical aspects of building design and architecture.

is the north side of the cathedral also known as Porta Della Mandorla, numerous
artist collaborated with the design of the facade in the early decades of 15th
century such as Donatello, Nanni di Banco and Jacopo Della Quercia.

Nanni di Banco stood for figure of the virgin. The name of
this facade is based on that sculpture he created.

The cathedrals interior preserves some of the great artworks
such as on the left hand side you will find two detached frescoes painted by
Paolo Uccello in 1436 and by Andrea del Costagno in 1456. Paolo Uccello also
created the clock inside the wall that shows 4 vogorous   the “Head of Saints”.

100 years or more it was decided that every inch of the
exterior should be covered with marble as it says that marble can be accessed
with material of antiquity, the cathedral was one of the few that actually
built with marble at that time in Florence. (King, 2001, p. 109)

Giotto’s Bell Tower was
built 1334-1359. The tower remains together with a huge dome, one of the most
striking views of town. Giotto was actually a famous painter but actually also
the architect behind the tower.  He died
at 1337 therefore only the lower part of the tower remained finished, the work
was finished by Andrea Pisano and Fransesco Talenti.                         The
reliefs of the lower campanile known as the Italian bell tower relies on the
bibles point of view between the creation of a man and woman, beginning of
human works such as sheep herding, wine making, metallurgy and music.

The tower has some great features, not only by the paintings
but also a body art of what Florence represent itself. The tower stands
finished at 84, 7 m tall and approx. 15m wide an eloquent example of the 14th
century gothic architecture in Florence combining a strong vertical thrust with
the principle of sound solidity, its cover buttressed rising the full length of
the tower to the projecting terrace at the top. (King, 2001,
p. 121)
Talenti is behind the large windows of the upper tier of the tower, to access
the large terrace a climb of over 400 steps is needed to make the top.

you have some views of archtiectural planning of Giottos bell tower and Brunelleschis
drawing of Santa Maria del Fiore. Brunelleschis used 4 million bricks to create
the dome

dome could have been projected by Arnolfo or maybe not, had a drum. It was not
clear if Arnolfo or Talenti gave it a serious thought by the major opening.
Since the end of 14th century it came to a mind that some day it
should be done, number of architects wanted to readvice covering of the opening
about 140 ft across. Until now we know by the frescoes in the spanish chapel in
Santa Maria Novella that at least one unofficial project was made about 1367,a
slightly pointed dome that not appeared with a drum. The time scale of a
chapter has been concerned with italian gothic by the style that was developed
with it; amazing achievements of Gothic architects in Venice and Lombardy have
been neglected because of the no relevance of the history about renaissance
architectur Murray,1996,(P.30)

whats seen on the giottos bell tower and the dome and how Brunelleschi executed
the cathedral it will be tough to find critical aspects of the creation.

that time we could wonder how could they manage carrying heavy objects,
structure pieces but Brunelleschi found his way by building a ox- hoist, it`s
driven by a horse. At the bottom, the helical screw that raises and lowers the
wheels is clearly depicted. (King, 2001, p. 59)

The upper part was
substituted with bricks to stone so it could be lighter on the top due to
stability. The rest Bruneleschi creates a whole part of machinery that could
help him optimize the workload such as cranes that can handle the stone

choice was to apparantly build the dome in horizontal courses, each of them
containing long thick elements bounded to its predecessor in a way that it
could carry its own weight until it was strong enough to support the load until
the ring has been closed, meaning of to the next one.

dome contains a wooden centering that supports the arch, he also created a
optical view instrument. It`s also a sort of a diagram he used to render the
Baptistery in perspective. The painting is on the left, the mirror on the
right.Brunelleschi`s Dome (King, 2000, p.36)

are also here to see and understand the seperation between reneissance, purpase
and reuse also in in combination of gothic and romanesque style, meaning when
the construction reaches a era.

Her you have a sample of the plan drawing of Santa Maria del
Fiore. The numbers explains where each construction is placed and how they
applied further on.Murrray, 1996,(P.27)