The expression of smart cities, which
traded significantly, are not neoteric nowadays and the appeared in the end of
the nineties of the 20th century with the emergence of the movement
of smart growth which showed new policies in urban planning (Bollier, 1998).
The term of smart cities had been embraced from 2005 by a number of technology
companies (IBM, 2009) through the implementation
of the information systems to combine with the employment of transportation,
infrastructure, and urban services.
Smart city schemes, through the end of 20th
century, turned to be exceedingly common and diffused throughout the world.
Magnification the number of the urban residents persistently and the cities
became more perplexity (complicate) in administration, economic, social and
political aspects helm (lead) the governments to employ the technology aspects
that realize an elevated fineness of the urban areas and bestead objectives for the public services.
The attraction of the smart cities is the
capability to connect the technology with urban spaces, urban planning,
environment, populations’ interests, cultural, social, economic aspects, and
The improvements and superiority of the
technology at the neoteric decades had a power on one hand and also a great
influence on the transforming of the urban existence. The information and
communication technologies (ICTs) had an enormous attainability in the setting
process of the urban developments. The society adoption of these technologies innovates
ubiquity state of technology, especially in the developed countries (Angelidou,
a smart city?
city is a neoteric episode and phenomena. This city quickly prevalent in all
over the world. The urban spaces are transferring toward smarter urban,
utilizing high technology to confront the critical issues that are related with
the urban lives such as the urban congestion, traffic, cultural behaviours, population, and other more.
However, there is deficiency for a lucid (net or clear) definition for smart
cities. The major cause for the embarrassment of smart cities definition is
that smart cities are a bottom-up
phenomenon (episode) and are not a top-down
phenomenon as shown in figure one. The top-down approach emerges from fully realized strategic seeing’s
of smart cities and it is sophisticatedly stratifying the government laws and
the rules and policies in order to attain the participated objectives declared
from the start and onset.
the bottom-up development pattern ignore two prime and essential aspects:
first, the citizen and governance of the smart cities. And the management of
governance of the smart city is a critical and cohesive action to accords the
success of smart cities, this is because the government
is the method that complements to head
the whole individual goals toward a public objective. Second, the citizen is the most substantial aspect of the smart city definition; however, they are
often neglected. In order not to execute the initiative of smart cities, it
does not intend the achievement of the technological success, but employing the
technology for originating a citizen and public worth and values. This is
important to the smart project connections to specify initiatives, like obtaining the results visible ad eligible
by the public and the citizens that makes them confident to the smart city
projects, policy, and programs.
The urban evolution has performed a senior alteration in the cities
model with the beginning of the 21st century, and the primary issue
of the urban theories and planning became the smart cities. With the immediate
involvement of the community, the
political and industrial structures, practitioners, and the development of
communication and the information technology which this last two-term make
the smart cities under continuous