The Clinical Studies and Findings of ADHD 2Abstract:ADHD, otherwise known as Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, is a very common medicalcondition in the United States. Typically, ADHD is caught in the early stages of childhood, mostcommonly noticed during critical periods of development as a child. ADHD may be caught earlyon, however can continue into adult years, and may very well be with an individual their wholelife. This paper will discuss not only what Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is, but alsothe treatment for this condition, signs and indicators, and research of this ailment from previousfindings.
Keywords : ADHD- Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, treatment, research, development.The Clinical Studies and Findings of ADHD 3Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, or ADHD for short, can be defined as “achronic condition marked by persistent inattention, hyperactivity, and sometimes impulsivity”.ADHD begins in childhood and often lasts into adulthood. As many as 2 out of every 3 childrenwith ADHD continue to have symptoms as adults.” (Webster’s Medical Dictionary). Risk Factorsof this condition include but are not limited to: low birth weight, prenatal and perinatal obstetriccomplications, and intrauterine toxins such as nicotine or alcohol.
ADHD can affect individuals of all ages, from young age, to old age. It does not affectsoly one person, or even focused in one main area. ADHD may be found anywhere we look. Arecent study conducted by the ADHD institute states “Although there is no global consensus,meta-regression analyses have estimated the worldwide ADHD/HKD prevalence at between5.
29% and 7.1% in children and adolescents, and at 3.4% (range 1.2–7.
3%) in adults. Theprevalence of ADHD in very young children (aged <6 years) or later in adult life (aged >44years) is less well studied.” Prevalence rates from this same institution provide us withinformation on just how certain factors are associated with the disorder.The Clinical Studies and Findings of ADHD 4ADHD is actually more common in the United States than doctors may have believed inyears past. Studies have shown that “the number of American children 4-17 who’ve beendiagnosed with ADHD increased 42% between 2003 and 2011.” (WebMD) This is anincreasingly large number, and the fact of the matter is this percentage only increases in time.
With that being said, many people question why it is now more than ever that ADHD is beingstudied and discussed, and why it is so prevalent in countries all over the world. It all comesdown to one fact: ADHD is not a common cold, nor is it a life threatening disease. AttentionDeficit Hyperactivity Disorder is a condition that has been around for centuries, but was nevergiven the proper time and dedication to be fully looked into. These days, medical professionalsare constantly looking to break new ground on the disorder, seeing as how it is becomingincreasingly widespread. Each year, many new cases are presented. “Approximately 11% ofchildren 4-17 years of age (6.4 million) have ever been diagnosed with ADHD, according toparent report from 2011-12.
Approximately 237,000 children aged 2 to 5 years in the UnitedStates had an ADHD diagnosis, according to parent report from 2011-12.” (CDC.gov Centers forDisease Control and Prevention)Individuals with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder may find themselves withmultiple signs and symptoms, seeing as how they are not just symptoms, but actual definingcharacteristics of oneself. Behavioral symptoms include aggression, excitability, fidgeting,hyperactivity, impulsivity, irritability, lack of restraint, or persistent repetition of words oractions.The Clinical Studies and Findings of ADHD 5Cognitive signs or indicators may include, absent mindedness, difficulty focusing, forgetfulness,and even short attention span.
Currently, there have not been many laboratory exams given to patients and individualswith ADHD. The only tests conducted are really those in which medical professionals diagnoseone with disorder itself. For example, the diagnosis of ADHD is strictly based on clinicalevaluation. Some Laboratory studies that may be conducted on an individual with ADHDinclude, Serum CBC count, electrolyte levels, liver function tests, and thyroid function tests.(Web MD).
An important key factor in dealing with ADHD is understanding that it is not a medicalcondition or disease that can just be “cured”, per say. ADHD is more of a personality disorderthan anything, which causes individuals to struggle with development, and life in general,however it should not stop one from living life properly. Multiple treatment options have beenproposed for those with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.
Finding the appropriatetreatment option for those with ADHD is crucial in the management of this condition. Treatmentcan stretch anywhere from medication, to behavioral/cognitive therapies, in which one mightfind his/herself growing in the right direction, rather than allowing ADHD to take control of theirlives. Pharmacological treatments for ADHD include stimulants like methylphenidate andamphetamines, or non-stimulants such as atomoxetine, clonidine and guanfacine.The Clinical Studies and Findings of ADHD 6Antidepressants may even be an option at times. Non-pharmacological methods of treatmentinclude behavioral therapy, which can include interventions through family and friends, and alsoneurofeedback, which displays imagingand studies or findings of brain activity, which helps one with self-regulation of brain function,therefore spreading to everyday actions and activity levels and habits. (Psychology Today)ADHD is a condition that may last with an individual up to a lifetime.
It is actually morecommon for an ailment such as this one to be with one forever, seeing as how it is not acondition that can just be “cured”. ADHD is characterized as a long-term, chronic disorder.Being that it is classified as long-term, many children, about half to be precise, continue toexperience the problematic symptoms of impulsivity and hyperactivity into adulthood.Untreated, ADHD can negatively affect a child’s development in many ways. For example,symptoms can tamper with one’s sense of self esteem, as well as interfere with social interaction,causing children to have difficulty with others, which can cause a chain reaction stemming intothe future and adulthood, etc.
It is noted that about 70-80% of ADHD subjects who are treatedwith stimulant medications experience relief from symptoms while on said medication(healthyplace.com). About half of children with ADHD are likely to “outgrow” the condition andsymptoms with age, whereas the other half are more likely to retain the symptoms throughoutearly and middle adulthood.The Clinical Studies and Findings of ADHD 7In conclusion, ADHD is a very common condition. With all this information on thecondition, it is fair to say that ADHD can be at times, difficult to deal with. It includes manyfactors and parts to take into consideration when dealing with directly.
Someone with suchenergy and said inability to maintain focus can be at times hard to deal with, however imaginebeing in the shoes of someone with ADHD. I personally have Attention Deficit HyperactivityDisorder. Diagnosed at 6 years old, I had not even the slightest clue that I was different thanothers.
I’ve always struggled with hyperactivity. To this day, I need to constantly remind myselfto calm down and take things slowly. Dealing with ADHD can be hard, similarly to learning andstudying it. Everyday, medical professionals look deeper into the disorder, with the intentions oflearning even more about it to present to the world. Something that people need to remember isthat conditions are not plagues, they are simply additional traits to which a person may hold, andthere is nothing wrong with that, it just adds to the beauty in which an individual radiates.The Clinical Studies and Findings of ADHD 8ReferencesADHD Epidemiology. (n.
d.). Retrieved January 15, 2018, fromhttp://adhd-institute.com/burden-of-adhd/epidemiology/Attention-Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder. (n.d) (November 13, 2017) Retrieved January 16,2018 fromhttps://www.
cdc.gov/ncbddd/adhd/data.htmlUnderstanding ADHD- The Basics. (2017.
) Web MD. Retrieved January 16, 2018 fromhttps://www.webmd.com/add-adhd/childhood-adhd/understanding-adhd-basicsAttention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Workup. (n.d) Soreff, Stephen. (October27,2017) Retrieved on January 16, 2018 fromhttps://emedicine.medscape.
com/article/289350-workup#c5The Clinical Studies and Findings of ADHD 9What is Neurofeedback? (n.d) Stoler, Diane Roberts. (October 4, 2014) Retrieved on January17, 2018 fromhttps://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/the-resilient-brain/201410/what-is-neurofeedbackPrognosis for ADHD in Children. (n.d) Tracy, Natasha.
Retrieved on January 17, 2018 fromhttps://www.healthyplace.com/adhd/children-behavioral-issues/prognosis-for-adhd-in-children/Behavioral Treatments for Kids with ADHD.
(n.d) Miller, Caroline. Retrieved on January 17,2018 from://childmind.org/article/behavioral-treatments-kids-a