The the society are determined by sex, that

above assertion in Manusmriti1 gives a
clear picture about the position and status of Indian women clearly. In India,
women have always been subjected to various discriminations throughout their
life. Though women have been given special preference and importance as goddess
in Hinduism, as a devote women have been denied from getting such preference
and importance. Speier says that Manu’s code depicted changed status of women
which is characteristic as “obedience to her husband is the beginning, and the
middle, and end of female duty”. Speicer further states that the women’s rights
“were wholly ignored by the Brahmanical Code2” because
daughters and wives are often too happy to require rights (Myneni, 2017).  Indian women have also been discriminated and
marginalised at every level of the society whether it is social participation,
political participation, economic participation, access to education and
reproductive healthcare. She has always been a victim of violence, abuse, trafficking,
prostitution, dowry harassment in greater extent in the Indian society. (Hazarika, 2011) For ages it has been believed
that the different characteristics, role and status accorded to women and men
in the society are determined by sex, that they are changeable. Right from a
child is born; the dance of gender begins, with the birth of son being
celebrated and that of girl being a reason to be morose3. There
are jobs that are women-centric and some that are men centric, in the Hindu
religious text, there is a place way a widow should lead their life, No such
laws for widowers Existed. (Sinha, 2013)

is estimated that around 50 thousand Dalit girls were sold to Hindu
organisations that involved in the Devadasi System as a female servants of
“God” and were sexually exploited4. The
birth rate of children from 1991 showed the sex ratio of 947 girls for 1000
boys, ten years later it had fallen to 927 girls for 1000 boys.5
Furthermore, since 1991 in 80 percent of all districts in India had recorded a
declining sex ratio with the state of Punjab being the worst in the record.
States like Maharashtra, Gujarat, Himachal Pradesh and Haryana have recorded
more than 50 point decline in the sex ratio in the same period6. The
reason for such discriminatory practises against women can be highlighted with
two specific social categories. They are Social Identity and Social Control
which are discussed in detail below.

1 Manusmrti, also spelled as
Manusmruti or Manusmriti, is an Legal Text among the many Dharmasastras of Hinduism. It was used to
formulate the Hindu Law by the Colonial Government

2 The religious
and social system of the Brahmans and orthodox Hindus, characterized by the
caste system and diversified pantheism.

The same situation existed in the Western Era especially in the ancient Greek
and Roman Empire, the philosophical changes in the Roman Civilisation brought
about liberation of women at a later stage.

4 Human Right Watch Report in 1992;
The Status of Dalit Women in India’s Caste Based System, Sonia Mahey,
University of Alberta

5 United Nations Children’s Fund
India’s Report on Child Sex Ratio, 1991

6 Munich Personal RePEc Archive
Data on Sex Ratio, March 2008