The population of the Republic of Belarus at thebeginning of 2017 was 9 million 505 thousand people.
According to thisindicator, the country ranks 92nd position in the world, 17th among Europeancountries, 6th among the CIS countries, according to a report of the NationalStatistical Committee of the Republic of Belarus.The average population density exceeds 80 people per 1km2. The most densely populated are central andwestern regions of the country.
At the beginning of 2017, in Belarus lived 5 million 78 thousand of women and 4 million 427 thousand of men . For a thousand men, there were 1,147 women,including 1168 in urban areas, and 1,078 women in rural areas.The most numerous in terms of the number ofinhabitants is Minsk, it is home for 1 million 975thousand people, or every fifth inhabitant of the republic (20.8%). The mostpopulated areas are the Minsk and Gomel regions, almost 30% of the populationlives in them. The largest among the districts is Minsk (208.7 thousandpeople). The smallest among the cities is the city of Disna in the Vitebskregion (1,5 thousand people).
Belarus is characterized by a modern type ofpopulation reproduction, and at present ???? the country isexperiencing a demographic crisis. As in most European countries, the femalepopulation prevails in Belarus, the share of pensioners is increased, and theshare of children is reduced.As recent population censuses of 1999 and 2009 showBelarusianpeople currently have all the problems of a developed, urbanized, aging, shrinkingsociety. Unfortunately, in Belarus, the material resources tocompensate for such processes are not comparable to rich European states. Thenatural decline in the population is not completely balanced by the birth rate,the migration increase is also not particularly large.In Belarus, as in many European countries, there is anegative population growth (decrease). From 2001 to 2011, the country’spopulation decreased from 9.957 million to 9481,000.
The reason for this demographic situation is the lowbirth rate, a large number of pensioners. However, since 2005 there has been adecrease in population loss. In 2001, the population decline was -51400, and in2011 it decreased to -25900.
These changes are due to the increase infertility. Two main factors contributed to the increase in the number of birthsin the republic: the age structure (the growth of the number of women of themost active reproductive age) and the age-related rate of childbearing.Respectively, the government of Belarus adopts various methods tostimulate the birth rate. At the moment there is a one-time government grant for the birth of a child. At the first child itis $900.
The same allowance after the birth of the second and subsequent childis $1,300. A woman can be on parental leave for up to 3 years, receiving amonthly allowance of $90, and also after 3 years, but receiving only $50monthly. The state actively supports large families. If the family has 4children, the state provides free housing. If there are three children in thefamily, the state also provides housing, but with a small surcharge from theparents.
The birth of each child (starting from the first) provides foradditional benefits for a mortgage. The more children, the more favorableconditions for a loan.The government of Belarus also plans to stimulate thebirth rate in other ways. Among them – concessional lending for in vitrofertilization for married couples suffering from infertility, as well asexemption from conscription for the urgent military service of fathers raisingthree children, the development of a system of social patronage for familieswith children with disabilities and other measures.
The global trend of urbanization is typical for modernBelarus. Three quarters of the population of Belarus are citizens. At thebeginning of this year, the urban population was 7 million 401 thousand people.
About 70% of the urban population is concentrated inlarge cities with a population of 100 thousand or more people.Every fourth inhabitant of the republic lives in ruralareas. The number of rural population at the beginning of this year amounted totwo million 104 thousand people.The current socio-economic, demographic situation inthe countryside in Belarus is characterized by a complex of accumulated problems.These are often unattractive living conditions for the rural population, andthe depopulation of the village, and the outflow of youth from rural areas.Today, more than ever, farmers need affordable loans, young people – housing,and all – decent working conditions.
Depopulation of rural areas and other rural problemsare relevant not only for Belarus. For example, in the EU countries to begin toaddress these issues began to work for quite some time. There, not for thefirst time actively engaged in the development of specialized programs forsustainable development of rural areas, individual strategies.