The population of the Republic of Belarus at the
beginning of 2017 was 9 million 505 thousand people. According to this
indicator, the country ranks 92nd position in the world, 17th among European
countries, 6th among the CIS countries, according to a report of the National
Statistical Committee of the Republic of Belarus.
The average population density exceeds 80 people per 1
km2. The most densely populated are central and
western regions of the country.
At the beginning of 2017, in Belarus lived 5 million 78 thousand of women and 4 million 427 thousand of men . For a thousand men, there were 1,147 women,
including 1168 in urban areas, and 1,078 women in rural areas.
The most numerous in terms of the number of
inhabitants is Minsk, it is home for 1 million 975
thousand people, or every fifth inhabitant of the republic (20.8%). The most
populated areas are the Minsk and Gomel regions, almost 30% of the population
lives in them. The largest among the districts is Minsk (208.7 thousand
people). The smallest among the cities is the city of Disna in the Vitebsk
region (1,5 thousand people).
Belarus is characterized by a modern type of
population reproduction, and at present ???? the country is
experiencing a demographic crisis. As in most European countries, the female
population prevails in Belarus, the share of pensioners is increased, and the
share of children is reduced.
As recent population censuses of 1999 and 2009 show
people currently have all the problems of a developed, urbanized, aging, shrinking
society. Unfortunately, in Belarus, the material resources to
compensate for such processes are not comparable to rich European states. The
natural decline in the population is not completely balanced by the birth rate,
the migration increase is also not particularly large.
In Belarus, as in many European countries, there is a
negative population growth (decrease). From 2001 to 2011, the country’s
population decreased from 9.957 million to 9481,000.
The reason for this demographic situation is the low
birth rate, a large number of pensioners. However, since 2005 there has been a
decrease in population loss. In 2001, the population decline was -51400, and in
2011 it decreased to -25900. These changes are due to the increase in
fertility. Two main factors contributed to the increase in the number of births
in the republic: the age structure (the growth of the number of women of the
most active reproductive age) and the age-related rate of childbearing.
Respectively, the government of Belarus adopts various methods to
stimulate the birth rate. At the moment there is a one-time government grant for the birth of a child. At the first child it
is $900. The same allowance after the birth of the second and subsequent child
is $1,300. A woman can be on parental leave for up to 3 years, receiving a
monthly allowance of $90, and also after 3 years, but receiving only $50
monthly. The state actively supports large families. If the family has 4
children, the state provides free housing. If there are three children in the
family, the state also provides housing, but with a small surcharge from the
parents. The birth of each child (starting from the first) provides for
additional benefits for a mortgage. The more children, the more favorable
conditions for a loan.
The government of Belarus also plans to stimulate the
birth rate in other ways. Among them – concessional lending for in vitro
fertilization for married couples suffering from infertility, as well as
exemption from conscription for the urgent military service of fathers raising
three children, the development of a system of social patronage for families
with children with disabilities and other measures.
The global trend of urbanization is typical for modern
Belarus. Three quarters of the population of Belarus are citizens. At the
beginning of this year, the urban population was 7 million 401 thousand people.
About 70% of the urban population is concentrated in
large cities with a population of 100 thousand or more people.
Every fourth inhabitant of the republic lives in rural
areas. The number of rural population at the beginning of this year amounted to
two million 104 thousand people.
The current socio-economic, demographic situation in
the countryside in Belarus is characterized by a complex of accumulated problems.
These are often unattractive living conditions for the rural population, and
the depopulation of the village, and the outflow of youth from rural areas.
Today, more than ever, farmers need affordable loans, young people – housing,
and all – decent working conditions.
Depopulation of rural areas and other rural problems
are relevant not only for Belarus. For example, in the EU countries to begin to
address these issues began to work for quite some time. There, not for the
first time actively engaged in the development of specialized programs for
sustainable development of rural areas, individual strategies.