The Wonderful World of Poetry

Allusion
a brief reference to a person, event, or place, real or fictitious, or to a work of art.

It can also be a casual reference to famous historical or literary figure or event. It may be drawn from history, geography, religion, or literature

Connotation
the implied meaning of a word

Denotation
the literal, dictionary meaning of a word

Figurative Language
the non-literal interpretation of language. It often draws comparisons between things

Hyperbole
exaggeration or overstatement

Imagery
language that evokes one or all of the five senses

Irony
an implied discrepancy between what is stated and what is meant. The words used convey the opposite of what they literal mean; a statement or situation where the meaning is contradicted by the appearance or presentation of the idea

Dramatic Irony
when the audience perceives something that the literary characters do not

Situational Irony
discrepancy between the expected result and the actual result

Verbal Irony
when a writer states one thing but means something else

Simile
the comparison of two unlike things using like or as

Metaphor
the comparison of two unlike things by state that one thing is the other thing

Oxymoron
two contradictory words placed together in a phrase (such as IcyHot)

Paradox
Two opposing ideas that reveal a truth that at first seems contradictory (ex. my only love sprung from my only hate)

Personification
giving human qualities to inanimate objects

Anthropomorphism
giving human qualities to animate objects (i.

e. animals/insects)

Symbol
an object that represents something abstract

Tenor (having to do with symbol)
the underlying idea that vehicle represents, (such as security or new beginnings)

Vehicle (having to do with symbol)
the item that is the physical object used for the symbol

Assonance
the repetition of vowel sounds (fleet feet sweep by sleeping geeks)

Consonance
the repetition of consonant sounds within words (let little buttons set together)

Onomatopoeia
a word that imitates the sound it describes (splash, buzz)

Refrain
a line or group of lines that is repeated throughout a poem, usually after one or more stanzas in a specific pattern

Rhyme
a pattern of words that contain similar sounds

End Rhyme
words that sound the same at the end of the lines (create rhyme scheme usually)

Internal Rhyme
words that rhyme within a line of poetry

Feminine Rhyme
when words with two syllables rhyme (little/spittle)

Masculine Rhyme
when words with one syllable rhyme, (ton/spun)

Rhyme Scheme
the pattern of stressed and unstressed sounds to create a definite movement in a regular motion, which consists of feet and beats

Feet
the smallest unit of repeated pattern of stressed and unstressed

Beat
the number of feet per line

Blank Verse
unrhymed iambic pentameter. each line usually has ten syllables and five of the syllables are stressed

Epic Poetry
a long, dignified narrative poem which gives the account of a hero important to his nation or race, ie

Free verse
unrhymed lines without a regular rhythm

Haiku
a lyric form that represents the poet’s impression of a natural object or scene, viewed at a particular season or month, in exactly seventeen syllables (three unrhymed lines of five, seven, and five syllables)

Lyric poetry
subjective, reflective poems with a regular rhyme scheme and meter which reveals the poet’s thoughts and feelings to created a single, unique expression

Ballad
a simple, narrative verse which tells a story to be sung or recited

Elegy
a poem of lament, meditating on the death of an individual

Ode
an elaborate lyric verse which deals seriously with a dignified theme

Narrative poetry
non-dramatic, objective poetry with a regular rhyme scheme and meter which tells a story

Sonnet
a rigid, fourteen-line verse with variable structure and rhyme scheme according to type

Shakespearean (English) sonnet
three quatrains and a concluding couplet in iambic pentameter

Petrarchan (Italian) sonnet
an octave and a sestet between which a break in though occurs

Analogy
the comparison between two pairs that have a similar relationship, such as describing step-by-step how writing a poem is akin to building a house

Couplet
two lines of poetry in a row that have end rhyme

Triplet
three lines of poetry in a row that have end rhyme

Iambic Pentameter
a meter in which there are five iambic feet, unstressed/stressed syllable pattern, in a line

Meter
the arrangement of a line of poetry by the number of syllables and the rhythm of accented syllables

Pun
the unusually humorous use of a work in such a way as to suggest two or more of its meaning or the meaning of another word is similar in sound; deliberate confusion of words

Stanza
a unified group of lines in poetry

Speaker
the persona the poet adopts to speak through in his or her poem

Mood
the emotional state created from the phrasing or actions in a text

Tone
the attitude a writer takes toward a character or subject

Juxtaposition
the placement of two things next to one another, whether it be images, words, or thematic ideas

Anaphora
A form of parallelism in which the beginning word or phrase in each line/clause is prepeated

Parallelism
the structure of phrases/clauses/lines that is the same

Archetype
objects, types of characters, plots, conflicts, themes, or situation that are used across cultures and times

Apostrophe
when an absent person, and abstracted object, or an important object is directly addressed (such as when a poet says, Oh come with me my love…)

Caesura
a natural break or pause in the middle of a line

Enjambment
the continuation of a sentence or clause over a line-break

Antithesis
the opposition or contrast of ideas in a balanced parallel construction

Spoonerism
the shifting of the first letter(s) of words or the words themselves so that it changes the meaning of the words and sentence for a humorous effect

Theme
the insight into life that a poet expresses through a poem

Motif
ideas or literary elements that are repeated in a text