There are many other countries in the world, but I feel Turkmenistan is still a unique country that is still important in this world because of its traits and cultures. Turkmenistan is special in its own way by it own cultures, religions and heritages. In Turkmenistan their land is seventy percent desert. There are mountains that separate Turkmenistan from Iran. The Turkmens usually live in houses made of clay and straw. Their living area is in a walled courtyard. Plot and livestock surround the courtyard. Turkmens houses are only one story high, and some people live in apartments in the main city. What is interesting is their most common sport. The sport they like to compete in is horse racing. Turkmens have been competing in this sport since their independence. This sport is mostly competed in by men, preferably young and small. There is three different countries that speak Turkmen. The first country is Iran, mostly just the north of Iran. The culture in Iran is the Iraqi turkmens. They follow the turkmen heritages cultures, and some of the same religious beliefs. The region is called Turkmen Sahra. Iran also borders Turkmenistan, so it is very close to the country. The second country is Afghanistan. Twelve percent of Afghanistan speaks Turkmen. Some Uzbeks live in Afghanistan so there is about 4 million people that speak Turkmen. The third country is Uzbekistan also known as O’zbekiston Respublikasi. Uzbekistan has the largest Turkic ethnic group in Central Asia. These countries make up the Turkic groups in Central Asia. Turkmenistan is the 90th largest export country in the world. Turkmenistan is known for its large gas reserves, and their island is a stable country for its people. There are two oil refineries, Turkmenbashi and Seydi. The products that the refineries produce include of unleaded gasoline, petroleum coke, road bitumen, laundry detergent, hydrotreated diesel, and lube oil. Turkmenistan has been producing gas since after their independence from the Soviet Union in 1991. The country entered a period of isolation after the independence, which made it hard to start trading with other countries. Turkmenistan produces 70 billion cubic metres of natural gas each year. Sixty-sixty percent of its exports go to Russia gas monopoly. They have gas deals with some other countries including, Russia, China, Germany, and South Korea. Turkmenistan is neighbouring Iran, to reduce its dependency on Russia. In 2009, pipelines opened for China, and broke Turkmenistan’s energy reserves from Russia. The Turkmenistan oil industry is very wealthy and rich like its gas industry. It has 71.64 billion tons of oil, they also have 53 billion tons in onshore fields, and 18 billion tons in the Caspian Sea. Turkmenistan’s trading partners are China, Afghanistan, Italy, and Georgia. Turkmenistan is China’s largest trading partner. Turkmenistan exports natural gas and oil to China, and China imports structural iron. Turkmenistan also receives money from China and the other surrounding countries for giving them gas and oil. Turkmenistan has a population of 5.2 million people currently living in the country. It is north of Iran and Afghanistan and is northwest of China. Turkmenistan is part of Central Asia, and is by the Caspian Sea. The area of Turkmenistan is not very big, it is only 188,456 square miles. However, the population is not that big for its area, but there is mainly desert. The life expectancy of Turkmenistan is a very moderate rate. The men normally live up to 61 years,and the women normally live up to 69 years. Most turkmens have large families, the elders live with their the children. The elder living has to live with their children, because nursing homes are rare in Turkmenistan. Families with six or more children is normal in rural areas, so they have young help on the their harvest. Many marriages have to arranged and blessed by the parents. Their president’s name is Kurbanguly Berdymukhamedov. He has been the president since 2007 when he succeeded the lifelong president Saparmurat Niyazov. Mr. Berdymukhamedov is an automatic ruler that has built a personality cult, it is called the “Arkadag.” He is also a prime minister and commander-in-chief of the country’s armed forces. There were changes made and passed in 2016, which extended the presidential term limits from five to seven years. They also passed the law where there is a 70-year age limit. That is why Kurbanguly Berdymukhamedov has been president for eleven years, and is still remaining in power. In February 2017, President Berdymukhamedov was sworn to be the president for his third consecutive year. The currency of Turkmenistan is Turkmen Manat. The currency for the Manat exchange rate is the USD or the TMT rate, the currency code for Manats is TMT. One Turkmenistan Manat equals 0.28 in the United States. Their dollar bills range from fifty dollars to five thousand dollars. The language that the Turkmens use is Turkmen and Russian. Turkmen is part of the Oghuz group of turkic languages. Relating to the language it is close to Azeri, Turkish, and Uzbek. It contains many elements of Turkic, Persian, and Arabic. The Turkmen language borrows many words from the Russian language. That is why a low percentage of Russia speaks the Turkmen language. All children must attend school and at least receive a high school diploma. Trade schools, colleges, and any university will train those that would like to extend their learning, or strive for college degrees. Since their independence, the economy has had to have some changes for the teachers. There has been lower pay, lack for funding, and the rundown facilities have had problems. The problems have been occuring in mostly rural areas. There is only two cultures that speak Turkmen. The first one is Turkoman, it is persian. The second culture is Turkmenia, it is russian. These cultures have a poem, most of the cultures should know this poem by heart. The cultures have a unique musical culture that is connected with the oral literary tradition. All the Turkmens are Sunni Muslim, and almost every tribe or clan has its own legend or an account that explains they are Muslim. The reason they do that is because, they still follow some religious practices. Turkmen have often been called “half” muslims, because Islam is the defining moment of a tribe or clan. Each tribe or clan has its own cemetery or saint’s shrine. Members may get pilgrims to assist when the need arises. The pilgrim may appear for good fortune, the safety of a loved one, a cure for an illness, or the birth of a child. Turkmens like to visit friends and families, it is a favorite pastime for Turkmens. When they visit, they usually have large meals and stay overnight. Turkmens will usually try to entertain themselves by games, musics, and stories from the past. The urban part of Turkmen mainly goes places in the summer. They usually own summer houses in the outer part of town where they spend summer vacation. Many of them have gardens to where they plant and harvest little things during the summer. Turkmens also enjoy the theater, movies, music concerts, and television. They enjoy new movies and new songs that come out just like the United States does. Turkmens make carpets which are the world’s best collectors nd experts. The biggest carpets have up to 37,000 knots which is 400,000 per square meter. They are called Bukharan or “Oriental” carpets. Almost all the labor that goes into each carpet is produced by women. Women also weave a lot of items connected with their lifestyle. They also decorate felt tents, storage bags, and door coverings for people that work with agriculture. The traditional clothing for Turkmen people is fancy. Men have to have their head shaved, they have to wear a high sheepskin hat. The hat can be brown, black, or white and it is very shaggy. Long, red robes are common in traditional settings. In the cities, a Turkmen male is different from men in the West. A suit jacket with no tie, and pants and no hat worn. Women wear the same thing whether they are urban or rural. Women wear more traditional clothing than men. The main thing they wear is a long dress and a long head scarf. Over their dress they wear a red robe, it is called a “akurte”. Western-style is to immodest by most Turkmen women. The women embroider a keshde, and it can go around a collar or fringes. To make milk they use camels, cows, goats, and sheep. They can be made into regular milk or butter, creams, and yogurts. The meat is used for the bulk in the camel, cow, goat and sheep. The meat products are baked in dough or can be boiled. Soups are the scraps of bulk for their meals as well. One favorite Turkmen dish isdograma,a thick soup made with diced bread, lamb, onions, tomatoes, and spices. Hot green tea is part of every meal, even on the hottest days. Round flatbread is a staple throughout Central Asia.When relatives or guests visit, the food is spread out on plates and dishes on a large cloth on the floor. Guests and family members sit and have their meal around this cloth covered with food (called asachak). A typical Turkmen sachak will include a variety of fruits, vegetables, nuts, sweets, tea and other beverages, and bread, as well as butters and creams—all this before the main meal.