three key means of production one off, batch and mass.
1 One off
production is where the product you have got is the only one that has been
2 Batch is
where different colours and sizes are made for the companies that ask for them.
production is where the product is the same and is more cost effective as the
company that are producing them don’t have to change for example the colour or
The lamp is
mass produced, it is low cost with no optional colours or features it is
probably manufactured from pre-made components manufactured in other factories
and then brought together in an assembly plant.
The lamp is
made from 4 key materials – glass, metal, rubber, ceramic.
Glass manufacture impact on design
The dome is made of glass – glass is
made from liquid sand or even ordinary sand. Sand is turned into glass be
heating the sand to around 1700°/3900°F
Why do you think glass is a good choice?
Glass is a good choice for the lamp
because it is hardwearing and is a strong material. Glass can also be recycled
at the end if its lifecycle by melting it down.
Metal manufacture impact on design
has to be mined at some point in the process therefore it has a negative effect
on the environment. The molten metal is cooled to form the solid. The solid
metal is then mechanically shaped to form a particular product e.g. sheet
The two processes of making the metal
base for the lamp is sheet metal forming or die casting. The material that the
metal base is made out of is a zinc alloy because its properties are that its
high strength are hardness, this means its more cost effective and will be
better for mass production.
Sheet metal forming is formed into flat pieces that are used in metal working
and can be bent into a variety of shapes. The die casting process is where
molten metal is forced under high pressure into a mould cavity.
Ceramic manufacture impact on design
is any pottery after the first firing and before any glaze is applied. This can
be a final product such as bisque porcelain, or unglazed earthenware, often
called terracotta, or, most commonly, an intermediary stage in a glazed final
Moulding is a way of moulding in which the moulding material, which has been
preheated is placed in an open heated mould cavity.
Rubber manufacture impact on design
manufacturer uses rubber because it prevents water from getting into the light and
the rubber they use is elastomer which is a mix of polymer and elastic so that
the material last longer.
IP44 – IP numbers
IK numbers – IK numbers show how much impact the
product can take in the measurement of joules. They will test this by hitting
the product with different weight hammers.
BSI – BSI Group was created as the
Engineering Standards Committee in London in 1901 subsequently and became the
British Engineering Standards Association in 1918, adopting the name British
Standards Institution in 1931 after receiving a Royal Charter in 1929. In 1998
a revision of the Charter enabled the organization to acquire other businesses
and the trading name was changed to BSI Group. The BSI group take product and
test them, if the product is safe then they will have a ‘BSI Kite mark’. If the
product hasn’t got a ‘BSI Kite mark’ then it could be unsafe or could not be
BSI? – An emergency light for Cristal will
need to conform to legislation for lights – BS EN 1838: 2013 4.2
calls for a minimum of 1 lux anywhere on the centre line of the escape route
for normal risks (lighting solutions PDFCE – CE marking is a certification mark that indicates conformity
with health, safety, and environmental protection standards for products sold
within the European Economic Area. The CE marking is also found on products
sold outside the EEA that are manufactured in or designed to be sold in the
Research 3 existing Product
light is IP65
Learning Objective 3. This is a picture of the
In conclusion this report has given
me a better understanding of the needs of a new design of lamp for cristal.