This chapter will explain the methodology for this research in detail. This is a quantitative study consisting of six segments, which includes; research method, research design, data collection technique, population and sample, framework analysis and validity & reliability of data collection.
The method of investigation for this study was a quantitative method. According to Diddi and LaRose (2006) quantitative method is an examination technique, which produces numerical data and is expected to discover causal connections between two or more variables. He said that the importance in this research practice is on objective valuation of variables. According to quantitative methodology, the data on simple to abstract and multidimensional phenomenon are collected numerically to detect and describe the relationships between and among variables using inferential or descriptive statistical tests. Quantitative systematic approaches aid in generalizing the findings of the population.
Diddi and LaRose (2006) also discussed how the quantitative methods are used to describe ideas, behaviour, motives, attitudes and practices of people in link to study- related individuals, events and problems at one purpose of time or at particular interludes crosswise over a period of time; it is used to test assumptions about the possible relationship between two or more variables, and it is also used to study settings, situations, events and end results relationship between variable through analyses. In an experimental set-up, one variable is kept under control, which is known as independent, to decide its effect on an experimenting variable known as dependent variable. Holiday (2016) claimed that the quantitative method has the ability to uncover findings without investigator perceptions veiling the results. Diddi and LaRose (2006) also stated that the findings of a quantitative method additionally predict the consequences that are possible to arise. Under quantitative, it was a surveyed-study. A survey is a technique for information accumulation from an example of people according to Freemen (2013). The researchers stated that surveys are the frequently utilized information accumulation techniques as a part of sociology examination. In the present study, the researcher carried out a survey method so that he can identify the gratifications using Likert scale.
3.1 Research Methodology
The research was conducted using quantitative technique. Quantitative study helps in numerical statistics evaluation, it collects records using a mathematical based method and all information accumulated and analyse need to be in numerical shape. According to Diddi & LaRose (2010 ) quantitative evaluation in studies makes use of postpositive claims for expertise i.e. reason and effect thinking, idea reduction to unique variables and hypotheses.
The aim of the study is to find out how college students use twitter for consuming news. This study is built on the argument that the issue of social media technology and their role has inspired changes in the ways in which college students use twitter as the source of news consumption.
3.2 Population and Sample
The sample and sample size for the present study are 200 college students of Bangalore. This study is targeted towards college students who come under the age group of 18-24 in Bangalore College students are the early adaptor of the technology. According Pew Survey (2016) which recorded a decline in the amount of time youth spend consumption of news in any respect age degrees, however the steepest drop is the various 18-24 years old.
The sample size of 200 students in which, 100 are males and 100 females there are 100 males and females. Participants in the study were strategically chosen using snowball sampling around the Bangalore colleges. Snowball sampling is a nonprobability sampling method to examine subject’s recruit’s destiny topics from among their friends or families (Dragan & Maniu, 2013). Students are selected on the basis of how active they are on Twitter. The sampling strategy was Snowball sampling which makes distribution of questionnaire easy to fill as it was drafted in English language.
3.3 Survey method
A questionnaire survey method was applied in the process of the research of this study. Questionnaires generally consists of a set of close ended and also open ended questions that are followed by few response options for the respondents to choose from. They are administered to the respondents via various means.
Questionnaire structure: The researcher in the first section collected demographical data, which includes sex, age, nationality and other general information about the respondents because these are basic information which helps the researcher to place an identity. Sometimes these basic information feed into the analysis. This questionnaire also includes 18 statements that were used to address 6 gratifications such as Information sharing, Disclosure, Relevance, Social Influence, Social connection, and Habitual, borrowed from McQuail (1983). All statements are provided with 5 options for the respondents to choose from, the options were structured utilising a 5 – point Likert scale arrangement ranging from ‘strongly dis agree’ to ‘strongly agree’.
Questionnaire responses were analysed using a 5 – point Likert scale system to calculate the mean of every gratification sought to determine the first objective of my study that was to find out the most and least sought uses and gratifications of sharing News on Twitter.
To determine the most sought and the least sought gratification, the responses for the 15 statements addressing four gratifications were provided with options ranging from strongly disagree to strongly agree, the options t hen were assigned codes on a Likert scale ranging from 1 to 5 on the IBM SPSS statistics software.
The responses received from the collection of the questionnaires were then tabulated into the SPSS software to determine the total number of responses per each gratification.
Each gratification’s mean value was calculated from the responses that were allocated a specific value on the five – point Likert scale. The most and the least sought gratifications from sharing news on Twitter were then identified as a result of the mean values being sorted as descending, starting from the highest mean value.
The mean values for the gratifications were calculated separately for both male and female respondents. Further descriptive statistical test was applied for the mean values of both males and females.
In this study, Chi – square test was used to determine the significance of gender differences in the gratification sought by sharing snaps on Snapchat. Chi – square a non – probability test which examines nominal variables and their relationship with other variables, which are the gratifications sought by reading news on Twitter, was applied separately to the totals of each gender being male and female, in the context of this study.
In relation to the objectives of this study, the researcher examines the gratifications sought on the scale of the most and the least. The relationship between the most sought and the least sought identifies the motives for reading news on Twitter. The study also tries to discover the differences between the male gender and the female gender in reading news on Twitter using Chi – square test. The level of significance of the differences can be studied to understand the motives of each gender to read news on Twitter.
3. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK:
Uses and Gratification Theory
According to Blumler and Katz’s (1974) users and gratifications theory proposes that media users are active. They play a dynamic role in picking and utilizing the media. According to Blumler and Katz (1974), media users play a huge role within the communication procedure. Firstly, they’re purpose-orientated. Secondly, they look for particular media as a way to assist them attain their dreams. Similarly, individuals intentionally look for unique varieties of input through social networking posts pointed and emoting sympathy, insistence or in some occasions creating ‘likes’. The use of media and media content varies with distinct people because human’s desires vary.
A typical Uses and Gratification and its traditional application process would require a set number of audience administered with a questionnaire addressing various uses and gratifications. The research objective of this study being to determine the gratifications sought by reading news on twitter and the gender differences between the same, required collection of data from the users of the application Twitter and a study on their behaviour, through a structured questionnaire. To fulfil these objectives of the research study, Uses and Gratification theory was adopted in the constructing of the questionnaire statements and to which gratification those statements related to.
A questionnaire comprising of 18 statements addressing four grati?cations sought from reading news on twitter application, was administered for this study . The patterns of research applications such as the type of statements for the gratifications addressed, were adopted from a previous research paper.
The classification of gratifications was adopted from McQuail ( 1983) to the research as it attempts to enquire the reason for usage of the media, in this case the usage of online application Twitter.
McQuail (1987) offered four reasons or gratifications sought from the voluntary usage of media, and the same were used to form the researcher’s questionnaire to collect data and determine the most and the least sought gratification from reading news on twitter.
The questions categorized based on this gratification aim to determine the reason of reading news to disseminate information.
Media usage for purposes of information sharing, this gratification also addresses the satisfaction of reading news about the events and conditions in one’s surroundings, society and the world, to satisfy one’s curiosity and the pursuit of general knowledge, learning process for self and others you interact with, and a sense of security through information
In the present study, following gratifications were considered:
It is one of the most observed gratifications that are sought by social media users (Boczkowski, 2010). The gratification is sought by sharing news articles that contain useful information for friends and families on social media. Sometimes, it is also shared with the public.
Disclosing one’s life is another important gratification sought by sharing selfies on Facebook. Disclosure is the main gratification of autobiography, in which people seek to disclose the food they ate, the place they visited, the people they were with, etc. ( Malik et al., 2015) . Despite concerns relating privacy on social networking sites, numerous individuals involve in documenting their everyday activities and sharing their involvements online.
4.4 Social connection
Social connection is the primary and most recognized gratification on social networking sites (Cauwenberge et.al, 2010). People sought this gratification by creating new friends, developing communication, and sustaining it by active conversations. According to Cauwenberge et.al., (2010), one of the most active ways to sought social connection is by sharing news articles, links, tagging others, commenting on the post, liking and sharing other people’s post. Basically, it is a form of showing gratitude, appreciation, and affection. Thus social media creates a platform for substitute friends and families. It provides a sense of being in the right place.
4.5 Social influence
Social influence is a gratification that is sought by being trendy or following others, including friends and colleagues (Cauwenberge, et.al 2010). An activity, for example sharing articles, becomes trendy when people start imitating others who share articles. By imitating or allowing to be influenced by others, the activity creates and increases belongingness. Moreover, the activity is considered to be cool.
Habitual is a gratification sought by sharing news articles on a consistent basis (Cauwenberge, et.al 2010). McQuail (1983) referred habitual under entertainment as a desire to divert or escape from ordinary problems. Habitual includes passing time, releasing emotions through tweeting, and habitually taking part in sharing articles on social media.
Deliberately or involuntarily habits are cultivated in people. Thus, the massive news content online is one of the reasons for habitual sharing of news articles. Based on users’ online activities, Bridge (2015) classified social media users into several categories, including extroversion (extremely sociable), neuroticism (emotionally accountable), openness (imaginative), agreeableness (trusting), and conscientiousness (ambitious). Therefore, the motivation behind any online activity will vary from one user to another.