This remember what they have learned. The participatory

This chapterpresents the background to the study, statement of the problem, the purpose ofthe study, objectives of the study and the research questions that guided thestudy.

Again, it includeseducational significanceE1 ,delimitation, limitation and organization of the study.1.1 Background of the StudyFor yearsnow, education has been one of the most important things to the nation Ghana. Educationis a process by which a society invests in the development of its people(Pratt, 1980). Information and Communications Technology (ICT) education is notexcluded. One of thevisions of the Government of Ghana on education is raising the quality ofteaching and learning for effective outcomes.

In order to help evaluateteaching effectively, there have been a quest by researchers to find outteaching and learning methods which motivate, promote and improve the learningand understanding of concepts. This effort buttresses the agitation for a shiftfrom the traditional system of feeding learners with information to promotingintellectual development through proper participation of students in thelearning course mixed with right instructional media or materials. Mediumdescribes the means by which an instruction or information is communicated. “Mediumrefers to anything that carries information from a source to a receiver” (Sarfo & Adentwi, 2011). Media forms areuseful for information and instructional purposes. According to Wager (1982),”the education technology that can make the biggest difference to school andstudent is not the hardware, but the process of designing effectiveinstruction”.  In 1970s, the LearningResource Centers were established in various places throughout Ghana includingSaltpond, Offinso, Bagabaga. The purpose of these centers were to equipteachers with skills needed to design instructional materials.

Research hasshown that how teachers accomplish objectives depend largely upon the learningtheories to which they subscribe. The learning pyramid, even though has beencriticized (Strauss, 2013) is an important toolto finding out how learning is most likely to occur. According to the learningpyramid, the more active students are in their learning, the more they rememberwhat they have learned. The participatory method of teaching, shows a greaterpercentage of how students are likely to retain whatever is taught by teachers.

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            ICT,as it has evolved lately has a controlling influence over people’s life.  ICT helps us to better use moderntechnologies to capture, process and send data or information. Despite the roleof ICT as a discipline in the curriculum in Ghanaian schools, students havedifficulty in answering some questions relating to some ICT concepts. Forinstance, students were not able to respond to some questions the researcherasked after treating introduction to spreadsheet application with them. Theywere not able to find the maximum and minimum values of given range of data,difficulty in generating charts from some sample data and as well as creatingand saving a workbook after the researcher had taught introduction tospreadsheet application.             Theissue pertinent to this research is the need for students learning ICT in Ghanato see ICT as an everyday practical reality and not just a set of theoreticalconcepts with no relationship to real life.             Manystudents in Senior High Schools (SHS) tend to see ICT as unimportant because itis currently not examinable by the West African Examination Council (WAEC).

This means that more should be done to make ICT friendlier and more relevant tostudents even when it is not examined finally by WAEC. This can be achievedwhen the teacher employs proper instructional media of all forms andparticipatory method of teaching.             Itis against this background, therefore, that the researcher is interested inidentifying appropriate instructional media or materials while employing theparticipatory method of teaching so as to get students actively involved in thelearning of ICT. It is also of interests to the researcher to find out theproblems teachers encounter in designing or getting instructional media ormaterials while they adopt the participatory method of teaching. 1.2 Statement of the ProblemICT runsthrough the curriculum of Senior High Schools in Ghana. Students’ inability tounderstand the concept of ICT at the SHS level will make them have difficultyin grasping the higher concepts at the tertiary institutions. Students ofT.

I Ahmadiyya find it difficult to grab the concepts of ICT taught by teachersbecause of the inadequacy of instructional materials used in teaching. Inaddition to this, the teaching has been more of teacher centered rather thanbeing student centered, where students would have been greatly involved in thelearning process. These situations prone to yield little or no performance of studentsin the taught concepts.

This came to light when second year students of T.IAhmadiyya were tested by the researcher through an exercise after the studentshave been taught “introduction to spreadsheet application”. The students werenot able to practically find the maximum and minimum values of given range ofdata, difficulty in generating charts from some sample data and as well ascreating and saving a workbook as demanded by the researcher. It against this background that theresearcher undertook this action research to explore the use of instructionalmedia or materials and participatory method in the teaching and learning of ICTin order to improve the performance of students at the SHS level. 1.

3 Purpose of the StudyThe mainpurpose of the study is using participatory method to teach ICT by employingproper instructional media or materials to improve the performance of SeniorHigh School students at T. I. Ahmadiyya. 1.4  Objectives of the StudyFour research objectives guided the study. They were todetermine: 1.

     the teaching methods or strategiesteachers at the SHS level use in teaching ICT.2.     the instructional materials used inthe teaching and learning of ICT at the SHS level3.     the attitude of teachers towards theuse of instructional materials when they adopt the participatory method ofteaching4.     the problems faced by ICT teacherstowards the use of instructional materials when they adopt the participatorymethod of teaching.  1.5 Research Questions or HypothesisThe following research questionsguided the study: 1.

     What teaching method or strategies doteachers at SHS level use in teaching ICT?2.     What instructional materials can beemployed by teachers in the teaching and learning of ICT?3.     What are the attitudes of ICTteachers towards the use of instructional media or materials when they adoptsthe participatory method of teaching?4.

     What problems are faced by ICTteachers in employing instructional media or materials while they use theparticipatory method of teaching? 1.6 Significance of the StudyIt is theview of the researcher that using instructional media and adoptingparticipatory method for teaching ICT concepts will go a long way to improvestudents’ performance as well as kindle their interest in the study of ICT inT. I Ahmadiyya Senior High School.

Besides, itis hoped that the findings of this research would help to identify problemsteachers encounter in the quest for the right instructional media to be usedwhen adopting the participatory method of teaching. The studywould again be used to help enhance the students understanding of ICT conceptsas proper instructional materials are employed and with the use ofparticipatory method of teaching. Finally thestudy would reveal the performance of students as they are exposed to proper instructionalmedia while adopting the participatory method of teaching. 1.7 Delimitation of the StudyThe study wassupposed to have covered the entire students in the school. However, theresearch was limited to only second year students in T. I.

Ahmadiyya SeniorHigh School. 1.8 Limitations of the StudyLimitations are aspects of the study that negativelyaffect the result of generalization of the study but which a researcher has nodirect control over.

Veryfew of the respondents were willing to give reliable information demanded bythe research questionnaire as some of the respondents discussed the questionsbefore answering the questionnaire. Someothers who were given the questionnaire did not return them to the researcher.In addition, some teachers were chose not to fill the questionnaire given. 1.9 Organization of the StudyThe study has been organized into five chapters. Thefirst chapter deals with the background of the study, statement of the problem,purpose of the study, research questions or hypothesis, significance of thestudy, delimitation of the study, limitation of the study as well asorganization of the study.

The review of the relevant literature of the studyis found in chapter two, whiles chapter three also deals with the methodology.This comprises the design of the study, population, sample and samplingtechniques used, instrument and data collection procedure as well as theprocedure for analyzing the data. Chapter four covers result presentation anddiscussion of the data. The last chapter which is chapter five involves thefindings, conclusions, recommendations and suggestions for further studies.  CHAPTERTWOREVIEWOF RELATED LITERATUREIntroductionThe mainpurpose of the study is to use participatory method to teach ICT by employingproper instructional media or materials to improve the performance of SeniorHigh School students at T. I. Ahmadiyya.

This chapterreviews related information or materials of the present study. The review isorganized under the following subheadings: 1.     Underlying Theoretical Framework2.     Teaching Methods3.     Participatory Learning4.     Participatory Method and AlternateTraditional Method5.     Theories Under Participatory Method6.

     Importance of Participatory Method7.     Models of Participatory teachingmethods8.     The Concept of Instructional MediaUnderlying Theoretical FrameworkThis studytargets students in the Senior High Schools (SHS), ICT teachers as well as theteaching method or strategy suitable for the teaching of ICT at the SHS level.Therefore, a teaching method such as participatory and the use instructionalmedia should be adopted to improve upon the performance of students in theteaching and learning of ICT (Introduction to Spreadsheet Application), sincethe learning of any subject-matter depends on the way it is presented to thelearner by the teacher, the way the learner interacts with the learningexperience presented, and the environment within which the learning takes placeare very essential. It is in thisregard that this research is designed using instructional media andparticipatory method to improve SHS students’ performance in the teaching andlearning of ICT at T.

I Ahmadiyya Senior High School – Kumasi.Unfortunately,it is not all teaching activities that result in learning, because the teachercannot guarantee that learning actually occurs, when the pupils are unable toperform related tasks effectively. According to Farrant (1990), learning isconcerned with positive change in behavior as a result of the teaching and theteaching and the quality of the teacher’s interaction with the pupils.Bigge andShermis (1998) in their learning theories for teachers further indicates thatevery pupil can learn more effectively if given the appropriate amount of timeand the appropriate instructional opportunities. This suggests that the ICTteacher must be able to interact well with his/her pupils, articulatewell-defined instructional objectives, and must utilize sound instructionalmethods. Teaching MethodsDiscussion Method Discussion asa teaching strategy is one of the best ways of helping pupils to understand andlearn ideas (Hake, 1993).

The method involvespupils-pupils or teacher-pupils interactive dialogue, where they talk togetheror share ideas about a topic(s) in order to find supporting evidence to a claimor solution to a problem. Discussion could involve a whole class or inorganized smaller groups to enable both the teacher and pupils exchangeopinions based on valid reasoning. According to Hake (1993), when pupils aregiven the chance to talk about things, it becomes easier to find out theirknowledge in that topic.              Inorder that learners see clearly how an idea applies to everyday life, they mustbe given the opportunity to use the discussion approach, and that the teacheronly acts as a catalyst during the interaction among the students (Akpan, 1992). The focus of adiscussion can be on either content-specific issues or general science-society-relatedtopics just to provoke pupil’s thought and stimulate them to fully participatein the lesson and also boost their confidence to express their opinions (Erinosho, 2008).             Accordingto (Graves, 1985) in situations whereclass discussions are frequent, each student develops self-confidence since herealizes that he is contributing something.

This method provides an excellentopportunity for pupils to practice their oral communication skills. It alsoencourages critical and evaluative thinking (Graves, 1985).Lecture MethodAccording to Leedy (1980), thelecture is a pedagogical method whereby the teacher formally delivers acarefully planned expository address on some particular topic or problem. It atextbook control which is inflexible with little considerations given to thepupils abilities. Demonstration Method  The Concept of Instructional Media            Theword media comes from the Latin “medius” which means “middle”. In ge  APPENDIX AUNIVERSITYOF EDUCATION, WINNEBADEPARTMENTOF INFORMATION COMMUNICATION AND TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION QUESTIONNAIREFOR STUDENTS AND ICT TEACHERSDear respondent,This study aims atinvestigating the use of participatory method in teaching ICT while usinginstructional materials at T.

I Ahmadiyya Senior High School. The informationyouprovide will give background information about students and teachers and alsoused to determine the teaching methods or strategies thatteachers at the SHS use in teaching ICT. Please, kindly completeall items anonymously and honestly.All information providedby you will be treated as confidentialTopic: Usinginstructional media and participatory method to improve SHS performance in thelearning of ICT. A case study of T. I Ahmadiyya 2S1 students.  SECTIONABACKGROUNDINFORMATION OF STUDENTSPlease place a tick (?)or fill where necessary1. Gender   a.

Male    b. Female    2.Age a. below 16 years        b. 16-19 years       c.20-25years3.

Do you wish to offer ICT at the tertiary level? a Yes       b.No    4.Do you enjoy learning ICT in the SHS? a. Yes       b. No    5.

Did you have much desire in learning ICT in primary school? a. Yes       b. No    SECTIONB6. Sex a. Male b.

Female 7.Age a. 21 – 25 years b. 26-30 years c.

30 and above 8.Teaching experience. a. 1 – 6 years b. 7 – 13 years c. 14 years andabove 9. Did you enjoy learning ICT in the J.

H.S? a. Yes b. No 10.Did you enjoy learning ICT at the S.H.S level? a.

Yes   b. No  11. Did you offer ICT at the tertiary level? a. Yes     b. No      BACKGROUND INFORMATION OF TEACHERS SECTION CPleaserespond to the following statements by choosing one of the following scales ofresponses by ticking in the appropriate box.

Keys: SA=Strongly Agree, A= Agree, DA= Disagree,SD=Strongly Disagree    Question Response SA A DA SD 12. Teachers prefer the traditional method of teaching ICT.         13. Do SHS teachers employ the participatory method during ICT lessons?         14. Participatory method influence students’ interest and motivation in the learning of ICT.         15. Do students in participatory learning environment outperform students in the classroom where traditional teaching strategies are used?         16.

Do you think participatory learning strategies positively affect content literacy in the ICT classroom               REFERENCES Akpan, O. E. (1992). Towars Creative Science Teaching and Learning in West African Schools. . Cape Coast Catholic Mission Press. Bigge, M.

, & Shermis, S. (1998). Learning Theories for Teachers. Anderson Wesley Logman, Inc. 6th ed. Erinosho, S. Y. (2008).

Teaching Science in Seconday Schhols: A Methodology Handbook. Ibadan: Polygraphics Ventures. Hake.

(1993). The Scientific study of personality. London: Routeledge & Kegan Paul. Sarfo, K. F., & Adentwi, I.

K. (2011). Educational Technology (Instructional Technology). Kumasi: Wilas Press Limited. Strauss, V. (2013).

Why the “learning pyramid” is wrong. Retrieved from http:///www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/answer-sheet/wp/2013/03/06/why-the-learning-pyramid-is-wrong/      E1Shouldmake sure content includes “educational significance”