To restore the area, moresilvicultural activities should be done. Silviculture is the practice ofcontrolling the establishment, growth, composition, health, and quality offorests to meet diverse needs and values (Savadogo et al., 2010). There are two ways to restore the area, which areenrichment planting, and Miyawaki method.
Enrichment planting is astrategy for enhancing natural forests’ economic values to increase theirconcentration of economically important, indigenous tree species by planting seedsor seedlings for future harvest. It is commonly used for increasing the densityof desired tree species in secondary forests often characterized by aprevalence of low commercial species (Savadogo et al., 2010).First of all, the area hasto given a thorough site assessment to determine the condition of the area toease restoration process.
This includes the soil and climatic properties suchas annual average temperature, annual rainfall, number of dry months and wetmonths, soil drainage, soil depth, soil pH value, Cation exchange capacity, andsalinity. The next step is to do a re-vegetation plan preparation, where theunwanted vegetations are cleared to make space for new vegetations. Next isplant selection, where a suitable species is chosen to be planted at the site.After that, sitepreparation is done to clear space for new tree seedlings. The activitiessuitable for the area are bush hogging, and spot cultivation.
Spot cultivationmakes rows up and down the slope area without the risk of soil erosion. Maintenanceoperations such as slashing and spraying can be carried out safely without’side slope’. After the planting process, maintenance and monitoring should bedone on a regular basis to ensure the tree seedlings grow well. The enrichment plantingmethod used is line planting method, where the tree seedlings are planted inlines instead of randomly placed area.
The tree seedlings are planted in rowsdistance of 3 meters and column distance of 5 to 6 meters. The tree seedlingsare 2 m away from the trail, both on the left side and right side of the trail.The distance of tree seedlings from the first row to the third row is 3 meters.This distance is used in the existing secondary forest area.
The second method ofrestoration is the Miyawaki method. This is a method conjured by a Japanesename Akira Miyawaki, a botanist and expert in plant ecology. He is also aspecialist in seeds and the study of natural forests. He is active worldwide asa specialist in the restoration of natural vegetation on degraded land. Dr.Miyawaki’s approach is to plant seedlings of as many main trees of thepotential natural vegetation as possible, using mainly canopy tree speciesnative to the region (Bari, 2017).”From the day they areplanted, the various species and individual trees undergo a process of naturalselection through competition, resulting in the creation of a diversifiednatural forest” – Bari (2017). “Seedlings with extensive root systems arerandom planted in densely mixed plantings that match natural forest systems.
The trees reach four meters after five years, eight meters after ten years, andover 20 meters after 25 years. The result is a diversified forest that isallowed to grow naturally after three years,” – Mitsubishi Corporation (2017).According to Dr Miyawaki’s theory of forest regeneration, the best forestmanagement technique is no management at all.The first step to Miyawakimethod for restoring tropical forests is to collect seeds and seedlings (justafter germination) from the natural forest, or in this case, from the plantingsite. The seeds are then germinated in a nursery.
When two to three leaves havesprouted from the seeds, the seedlings are transferred to pots. The seedlingsare cultivated in pots until their root groups generally fill the containers. Afterthat, the seedlings are cultivated under nets designed to cut out 60 percent ofthe sunlight for one to two months.After the two months hadpassed, the seedlings nurtured one to two months more under 30 to 40 percentshade. After that, have the seedlings adapted to natural environmentalconditions in the existing forests, or in this case, the planting site.
Thisgoes on for one week to one month. The next step is to plant the seedlings intothe planting site. Maintenance is necessary for one to two years. From thethird year onwards, the trees are entrusted to natural management as naturewill foster the planted seedlings. At this point, the rule is “No management isthe best management”.The Miyawaki method ischosen because it is effective even in severe environments and has been used torestore both temperate woodlands and tropical forests. Unlike commercialforestry, forest management to cultivate trees as a timber resource, theMiyawaki method promotes the restoration and recovery of native forests.Forests offer biodiversity in its most natural form and fulfil the manyfunctions of natural ecosystems, including the absorption of carbon dioxide andthe protection of soil from erosion.
Since the main tree species are selectedfrom the planting site, the original ecosystem, including small soil animals,will be surely and quickly restored. Reference:- Bari,P. (2017). Miyawaki Model helps Pune citizens turn a barren hill slope into ‘mini-forest’.Retrieved online on 19th December 2017 at http://www.hindustantimes.com/pune-news/miyawaki-model-helps-pune-citizens-turn-a-barren-hill-slope-to-mini-forest/story-CL2HaSMS2yapl9qG3tYMwI.
Fact Sheet 4.12 “ForestRegeneration”. IPCC Special Report on Land Use, Land-Use Change andForestry. Retrieved online on 17th December 2017 at http://www.grida.no/climate/ipcc/land_use/235.htm- Ghosh,N.
(August, 2008). The tree guru. ST Blogs. Singapore Press Holdings Ltd.
Co.Retrieved online on 19th December at https://web.archive.org/web/20120316102255/http://blogs.straitstimes.com/2008/8/21/the-tree-guru/- MitsubishiCorporation. (2017). Re-creating NativeForests with Native Trees | Mitsubishi Corporation.
Retrieved online on 19thDecember at https://www.mitsubishicorp.com/jp/en/csr/contribution/earth/activities03/activities03-02.
html- Savadogo,P. Oden, P. C. Xayvongsa, L. (2010) Enrichment planting in logged-over tropicalmixed deciduous forest of Laos.
Retrieved online on 17th December2017 at https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11676-010-0071-6-