Commentaries after Zhou were added to the original text by urbane scholars.Art, literature, natural philosophy and even the martial arts have all drawn from the tradition of the Changes for their theoretical framework and terminology.
His social philosophy was based primarily on the principle of “ren” or “loving others” while exercising self-discipline. “What you do not wish for yourself, do not do to others.” (Analects, 12.2, 6.30).His political beliefs were likewise based on the concept of self-discipline.His main objective of being an educator was to teach people to live with integrity. Through his teachings, he strove to resurrect the traditional values of benevolence, propriety and ritual in Chinese society.
His philosophy had not made a significant impact on Chinese culture during his time. As of the fourth century B.C., Confucius was regarded as a sage who had deserved greater recognition in his time. By the second century B.C., during China’s first Han Dynasty, his ideas became the foundation of the state ideology.
Confucianism was the official imperial philosophy of China, and was extremely influential during the Han, Tang and Song dynasties. rearrangement of the Book of Odesrevision of the historical Book of Documentscompiled a historical account of the 12 dukes of Lu, called the Spring and Autumn Annals.Analects
It offers essentially a philosophy of life. It is a work of philosophy, which gives a metaphysical account of reality and insight into Daoist self-cultivation and government. It gives voice to a profound mysticism.
1. (Those who) possessed in highest degree the attributes (of the Tao) did not (seek) to show them, and therefore they possessed them (in fullest measure). (Those who) possessed in a lower degree those attributes (sought how) not to lose them, and therefore they did not possess them (in fullest measure).2. (Those who) possessed in the highest degree those attributes did nothing (with a purpose), and had no need to do anything.
(Those who) possessed them in a lower degree were (always) doing, and had need to be so doing.3. (Those who) possessed the highest benevolence were (always seeking) to carry it out, and had no need to be doing so. (Those who) possessed the highest righteousness were (always seeking) to carry it out, and had need to be so doing.
4. (Those who) possessed the highest (sense of) propriety were (always seeking) to show it, and when men did not respond to it, they bared the arm and marched up to the 5. Thus it was that when the Tao was lost, its attributes appeared; when its attributes were lost, benevolence appeared; when benevolence was lost, righteousness appeared; and when righteousness was lost, the proprieties appeared.6. Now propriety is the attenuated form of leal-heartedness and good faith, and is also the commencement of disorder; swift apprehension is (only) a flower of the Tao, and is the beginning of stupidity.7. Thus it is that the Great man abides by what is solid, and eschews what is flimsy; dwells with the fruit and not with the flower.
It is thus that he puts away the one and makes choice of the other.
Never took the Imperial Examination , but was appointed to the Hanlin Academy by the emperor. Notions of Confucianism, Taoism and chivalry were all embodied in his character. Extant works include more than 900 poems, which artistically recount his own life, social reality and the spirit of the high Tang Dynasty.Li Bai had great political ambitions all through his life and he never concealed his yearning for fame and honor in his poems.Li Bai revered the chivalrous spirit when he was young and wrote many poems on this.He also wondered as a Taoist hermit in his teens and Taoist fantasy permeates his work.
As a great national poet Li Bai also showed a great concern about war “Drinking alone in moonlight” Beneath the blossoms with a pot of wine,No friends at hand, so I poured alone;I raised my cup to invite the moon,Turned to my shadow, and we became three.Now the moon had never learned about my drinking,And my shadow had merely followed my form,But I quickly made friends with the moon and my shadow;To find pleasure in life, make the most of the spring.Whenever I sang, the moon swayed with me;Whenever I danced, my shadow went wild.
Drinking, we shared our enjoyment together;Drunk, then each went off on his own.But forever agreed on dispassionate revels,We promised to meet in the far Milky Way. “Still Night Thoughts” Moonlight in front of my bed—I took it for frost on the ground!I lift my head, gaze at the bright moon,lower it and dream of home.
Traveling in his youth, waiting in Chang’an for almost 10 years, experiencing the rebellion for 4 years, spending 10 years in Chengdu, and last two years roaming up and down in rivers and lakes.
But in general, he had a relatively successful civil service career, serving as collator at the Imperial Secretariat , tax collector, member of the Han-lin Academy, junior counselor in the Eastern Palace. He was not only one of the most productive of the T’ang poets, but also the most fortunate in that a large bulk of his writings has survived. Po left behind more than three thousand poetic works.
He is best known for his ballads and satirical poems.He held the view that good poetry should be readily understood by the common people and exemplified it in poems noted for simple diction, natural style, and social content. By stressing the utilitarian and moral concept of literature in the Confucian tradition, he brought to Chinese poetry a new direction, a sense of moral integrity, and a serious concern for the social problems of the period.
 However, his best-known, and saddest, poems were composed during the years after the Song formally ended his reign in 975. He was created the Marquess of Wei Ming (Chinese: ???; literally, the Marquess of Disobeyed Edicts), a token title only: actually, he was a prisoner. Li’s works from this period dwell on his regret for the lost kingdom and the pleasures it had brought him.He developed the ci by broadening its scope from love to history and philosophy, particularly in his later works.
He also introduced the two stanza form, and made great use of contrasts between longer lines of nine characters and shorter ones of three and five. Only 45 of his ci poems survive, thirty of which have been verified to be his authentic works, the other of which are possibly composed by other writers: also, seventeen shi style poems remain to his credit. His story remains very popular in many Cantonese operas. In 2006, a 40-episodes wuxia TV series named ‘ Li Hou Zhu yu Zhao Kuang Yin’ or ‘Li Hou Zhu and Zhao Kuang Yin’ was made, with main stars Nicky Wu (as Li Houzhu), Huang Wen Hao (as Emperor Taizu of Song) and Liu Tao (as Empress Zhou, wife of Li Houzhu).
Liu words in the Song and Yuan period the most widely accepted legend, was “where well water to drink Office, that is, singing and Liu Yong.” A word set “Movement Set” [Song medium term] Compared with these few words were, Liu Yong’s situation is markedly different. Word Qi Qing Liu Yong, formerly known as the three variables, Sung (This is a Fujian) people, birth and death years unknown, about and Yan, Zhang Xian, the principal living in Shinshu, Ren era. Early testing is not repeated the first, late in life in the Scholars, served as Muzhou auxiliary, Dinghai Hillsborough field Yanguan and Farming Yuanwai Lang and other small government.
Have “Movement set.” There are several stories of Liu Yong. Early to write his “Songs of praise for the rule of obscenity” that is well-known secular favorite romantic tunes, Once wrote a “sky crane”, the last sentence is “tolerant to Ukena, for the odd glass of sings,” Chin said that when he quizzed when “Pay attention to elegance” of Renzong special to Chutui, said: “and to the odd glass of sings, how to Ukena?” And he made a long time since Chinese Scholars (Wu had “Man can change fast record”), simply known as “the throne to Liu lyrics Three Changes,” quit writing songs specifically. Another rumor Said Liu Yong has visited Yan, Yan asked him: “Yin Jun composer sub it?” He replied: “Only if xianggongzhuang also composer son.
” Yan that he intended to ridicule, then, note that said: “Although the composition special child, never Road: ‘Green Line careless picked to sit with Iran’.” (Zhang Shunmin “paint-Man Zhang Lu”) Liu Yong regular contacts with the song children dancers, writing songs for their speech, according to legend he died in dormitories, are
Generally, the line length is fixed at five or seven or characters per line; although, there are some poems which have a six character line-length. The line length is also used for the purpose of further classifying the main three forms of regulated verse into subtypes.Rhyme is mandatory. Rhyme, or rime, is based on a sometimes somewhat technical rhyme scheme. The rhyme of a poem can be difficult to determine, especially for older poems as pronounced in modern versions of Chinese; however, even as early as the Tang Dynasty, formal rhyme might be based upon authoritative references in a rime table or rime dictionary, rather than on actual vernacular speech.
Generally level tones only rhyme with level tones, and non-level (or “deflected”) tones only formally rhyme with other non-level tones. Also, the first line of the poem may also set the rhyme, more often in the seven-character form than the five-character.The pattern of tonality within the poem is regulated according to certain fixed patterns of alternating level and deflected tones. Although there is some question as to the status of tone in older forms of Chinese, in Middle Chinese (characteristic of the Chinese of the Sui Dynasty, Tang Dynasty, and Song Dynasty), a four tone system developed.
For the purposes of regulated verse, the important distinction is between the level tone (similar to the modern Mandarin Chinese first tone) and the other three tones which are all classified in the category of deflected tones.Parallelism is a feature of regulated verse. The parallelism requirement means that the two parallel lines must match each word in each line with the word which is in the same position in the other line, the match can be in terms of grammatical function, comparison or contrast, phonology, among other considerations: the degree of parallelism can vary and the type of parallelism is crucial to the meaning of a well-written regulated verse poem. Phonological parallelism can include various considerations, including tonality. Grammatical function parallelism examples include matching colors, actions, numeric quantities and so on. In the eight-line lushi form, which is composed of four couplets, the middle two couplets have internal parallelism; that is, the third and fourth line are parallel with each other and the fifth and sixth lines are parallel with each other. The jueju is more flexible in terms of required parallelism, although it may be present.
The pailu requires parallelism for all couplets except for the first and last pair.The caesura, or a pause between certain phrases within any given line is a standard feature of regulated verse, with the main rule being for a major caesura preceding the last three syllables within a line. Thus, in the six-line verse the major caesura divides the line into two three-character halves.
Furthermore, in the seven-character line, there is generally a minor caesura between the first and second pairs of characters.
Superlative examples of the theme: urges its audience to drop out of official life, move to the country, and take up a cultivated life of wine, poetry, and avoiding people with whom friendship would be unsuitable.
Beyond the walls of Soochow from Cold Mountain templeThe midnight bell sounds reach my boat..
It established the basis for the long and glorious tradition of Chinese classical poetry.