Transcendentalism/Romanticism/American Renaissance

what is the Transcendentalist Bible/gospel?
nature

how does one become one with the Oversoul?
by studying nature and transcending the world

what is the Oversoul?
the Universal Being/God; it is everywhere and we return to it at death

is death feared by Transcendentalists?
no

what is the (transcendental) intuitive approach?
union of the individual psyche with the Oversoul; the universe is connected to the individual soul; one becomes one with the world while remaining unique and separate

who wanted to be the American poet?
Emerson, but is poems were not good enough

to Transcendentalists, are all people good?
yes

to Transcendentalists, are churches necessary for truth?
no

who was interested in Eastern philosophies?
Transcendentalists

who emphasized nonconformity?
Transcendentalists

what were Transcendentalist miracles?
life and everyday occurrences

did Transcendentalists emphasize consistency?
no, they preferred inconsistency and change

did Transcendentalists fear the future?
no, not if one trusts him/herself

to Transcendentalists, where does reform come from?
within; the individual is the spiritual center of the universe; all knowledge begins with self-knowledge

can Transcendentalists defy fate/predestination?
yes, through human thinking

was manual labor frowned upon by Transcendentalists?
no

who were famous Transcendentalists?
Ralph Waldo Emerson, Henry David Thoreau, Margaret Fuller, Bronson Alcott, Louisa May Alcott

what is the opposite of Transcendentalism?
materialism

what is the same as Transcendentalism?
idealism

are all Transcendentalists Romantics?
yes

are all Romantics Transcendentalists?
no

what caused Transcendentalism?
erosion of Calvinism, resistance to Puritanism, too much focus on science, irrelevance of religion, women’s rights, abolitionism, search for deeper truth

when was the American Renaissance?
1820-1865

what happened in the American Renaissance?
we gained an American voice

which poet gave the American voice to poetry?
Walt Whitman

what are some characteristics of the American hero?
young/youthful, knowledge of people or life based upon intuitive morals and not society’s rules, man into wilderness, loss of innocence, quest to reclaim paradise

what were characteristics of romantic literature?
nature is restorative, nature is good, the city is evil and dirty, nature is a teacher, imagination and feelings trump reason, youthful innocence is valuable, interest in exotic locales, distrust of progress

to romantics, what is the highest expression of imagination?
poetry

were American romantic poems innovative?
no, but American novelists were

what were fireside poems?
family-friendly poems

who was a famous fireside poet?
Henry Wadsworth Longfellow